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Cervical Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cervical Cancer

  1. Stage Information for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Hydatidiform Mole (HM)HM (molar pregnancy) is disease limited to the uterine cavity. Gestational Trophoblastic NeoplasiaDefinitions: FIGOThe Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) have designated staging to define gestational trophoblastic neoplasia; the FIGO system is most commonly used.[1,2] Some tumor registrars encourage the recording of staging in both systems.FIGO staging system (and modified World Health Organization [WHO] prognostic scoring system)The FIGO staging system is as follows:[1]Table 1. Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (GTN)a,bFIGO Anatomical StagingFIGO = Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique; hCG = human chorionic gonadotropin; iu = international unit; WHO = World Health Organization.a Adapted from FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology.[1]b To stage and allot a risk factor score, a patient's diagnosis is allocated to a stage as

  2. Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  3. Stage IA Cervical Cancer

    Equivalent treatment options:Total hysterectomy.[1] If the depth of invasion is less than 3 mm proven by cone biopsy with clear margins [2] and no vascular or lymphatic channel invasion is noted, the frequency of lymph node involvement is sufficiently low that lymph node dissection is not required. Oophorectomy is optional and should be deferred for younger women. Conization. If the depth of invasion is less than 3 mm, no vascular or lymphatic channel invasion is noted, and the margins of the cone are negative, conization alone may be appropriate in patients wishing to preserve fertility.[1]Modified radical hysterectomy. For patients with tumor invasion between 3 mm and 5 mm, radical hysterectomy with pelvic node dissection has been recommended because of a reported risk of lymph node metastasis of as much as 10%.[2] However, a study suggests that the rate of lymph-node involvement in this group of patients may be much lower and questions whether conservative therapy might be

  4. Stage Information for Cervical Cancer

    Cervical carcinoma has its origins at the squamous-columnar junction whether in the endocervical canal or on the portion of the cervix. The precursor lesion is dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN]), which can subsequently become invasive cancer. This process can be quite slow. Longitudinal studies have shown that in untreated patients with in situ cervical cancer, 30% to 70% will develop invasive carcinoma over a period of 10 to 12 years. However, in about 10% of patients, lesions can progress from in situ to invasive in a period of less than 1 year. As it becomes invasive, the tumor breaks through the basement membrane and invades the cervical stroma. Extension of the tumor in the cervix may ultimately manifest as ulceration, exophytic tumor, or extensive infiltration of underlying tissue including bladder or rectum. In addition to local invasion, carcinoma of the cervix can spread via the regional lymphatics or bloodstream.

  5. nci_ncicdr0000062699-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment

  6. Changes to This Summary (09 / 06 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  7. Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  8. nci_ncicdr0000062964-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Endometrial Cancer Treatment

  9. High-Risk Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (FIGO Score ≥7) Treatment

    Multiagent chemotherapy is standard for the initial management of high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). A systematic literature review revealed only one randomized controlled trial (and no high-quality trials)—conducted in the 1980s—comparing multiagent chemotherapy regimens for high-risk GTN.[1] In the trial, only 42 women were randomly assigned to either a CHAMOMA regimen (i.e., methotrexate, folinic acid, hydroxyurea, dactinomycin, vincristine, melphalan, and doxorubicin) or MAC (i.e., methotrexate, dactinomycin, and chlorambucil).[2] There was substantially more life-threatening toxicity in the CHAMOMA arm and no evidence of higher efficacy. However, there were serious methodologic problems with this trial. It was reportedly designed as an equivalency trial, but owing to the small sample size, the trial was inadequately powered to assess equivalence. In addition, the characteristics of the patients randomly assigned to the two study arms were not

  10. Overview

    Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Cervical Cancer Prevention,Cervical Cancer Treatment,and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available. Screening With the Papanicolaou (Pap) Test: Benefits Based on solid evidence,regular screening of appropriate women for cervical cancer with the Pap test reduces mortality from cervical cancer. The benefits of screening ...

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