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    Cervical Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Cervical Cancer

    1. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062759-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Cervical Cancer Treatment

    2. Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Uterine Sarcoma

      The most common histologic types of uterine sarcomas include:Carcinosarcomas (mixed mesodermal sarcomas [40%–50%]).Leiomyosarcomas (30%).Endometrial stromal sarcomas (15%).The uterine neoplasm classification of the International Society of Gynecologic Pathologists and the World Health Organization uses the term carcinosarcomas for all primary uterine neoplasms containing malignant elements of both epithelial and stromal light microscopic appearances, regardless of whether malignant heterologous elements are present.[1]References: Silverberg SG, Major FJ, Blessing JA, et al.: Carcinosarcoma (malignant mixed mesodermal tumor) of the uterus. A Gynecologic Oncology Group pathologic study of 203 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 9 (1): 1-19, 1990.

    3. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage III Endometrial Cancer

      Standard treatment options:In general, patients with stage III endometrial cancer are treated with surgery, followed by chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, or both. For many years, radiation therapy was the standard adjuvant treatment for patients with endometrial cancer. However, several randomized trials have confirmed improved survival when adjuvant chemotherapy is used instead of radiation therapy. In a trial conducted in a subset of patients with stage III or IV disease with residual tumors smaller than 2 cm and no parenchymal organ involvement, the use of the combination of cisplatin and doxorubicin resulted in improved overall survival (OS) compared with whole-abdominal radiation therapy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval limits, 0.52–0.89; P = .02; 5-year survival rates of 55% vs. 42%).[1][Level of evidence: 1iiA] In a subsequent trial, paclitaxel with doxorubicin had an outcome similar to that of cisplatin with doxorubicin.[2,3] The three-drug regimen

    4. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Evidence of Harm

      Annually in the United States, an estimated 65 million women undergo cervical cancer screening;[1] about 3.9 million (6%) will be referred for further evaluation.[2] About 11,000 cases of invasive cervical cancer were diagnosed in 2008. Thus, Papanicolaou (Pap) test screening results in a large number of colposcopies for benign conditions.The major potential harm of screening for cervical cancer lies in the screening detection of many cytologic abnormalities such as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), the majority of which would never progress to cervical cancer. Women with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive ASCUS or LSIL on Pap testing are usually referred for colposcopy. Histological CIN 2+ is treated with cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure. These procedures permanently alter the cervix and have consequences on fertility and pregnancy.[3] Younger women are more likely to acquire HPV

    5. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Cervical Cancer Treatment

      The size of the primary tumor is an important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal therapy.[1] Patterns-of-care studies in stage IIIA/IIIB patients indicate that survival is dependent on the extent of the disease, with unilateral pelvic wall involvement predicting a better outcome than bilateral involvement, which in turn predicts a better outcome than involvement of the lower third of the vaginal wall.[2] These studies also reveal a progressive increase in local control and survival paralleling a progressive increase in paracentral (point A) dose and use of intracavitary treatment. The highest rate of central control was seen with paracentral (point A) doses of more than 85 Gy.[3] Patients who are surgically staged as part of a clinical trial and are found to have small volume para-aortic nodal disease and controllable pelvic disease may be cured with external-beam pelvic and para-aortic radiation therapy. If postoperative external-beam radiation

    6. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent and Resistant Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia

      Recurrent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the uterus or in other parts of the body.Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia that does not respond to treatment is called resistant GTN.

    7. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma

      There is currently no standard therapy for patients with stage IV disease. These patients should be entered into an ongoing clinical trial.Carcinosarcomas (the preferred designation by the World Health Organization) are also referred to as mixed mesodermal or mullerian tumors. Controversy exists about the following issues:Whether they are true sarcomas.Whether the sarcomatous elements are actually derived from a common epithelial cell precursor that also gives rise to the usually more abundant adenocarcinomatous elements. The stromal components of the carcinosarcomas are further characterized by whether they contain homologous elements, such as malignant mesenchymal tissue considered possibly native to the uterus, or heterologous elements, such as striated muscle, cartilage, or bone, which is foreign to the uterus. Carcinosarcomas parallel endometrial cancer in its postmenopausal predominance and in other of its epidemiologic features; increasingly, the treatment of carcinosarcomas

    8. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Evidence of Benefit

      Measuring endometrial thickness (ET) with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and endometrial sampling with cytological examination have been proposed as possible screening modalities for endometrial cancer. The Papanicolaou (Pap) test, used successfully for screening for cervical cancer, is too insensitive to be used as a screening technique for the detection of endometrial cancer,[1] although occasionally the Pap test may fortuitously identify endometrial abnormalities, such as endometrial cancer. Routine screening of asymptomatic women for endometrial cancer has not been evaluated for its impact on endometrial cancer mortality.[2,3] Although high-risk groups can be identified, the benefit of screening in reducing endometrial cancer mortality in these high-risk groups has not been evaluated. Using the same cutoffs to define an abnormal ET in asymptomatic women [4] as used in symptomatic women [5] would result in large numbers of false-positive test results and larger numbers of

    9. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

    10. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

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