Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (02 / 26 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.SignificanceUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
Hydatidiform Mole (HM)HM (molar pregnancy) is disease limited to the uterine cavity. Gestational Trophoblastic NeoplasiaDefinitions: FIGOThe Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) have designated staging to define gestational trophoblastic neoplasia; the FIGO system is most commonly used.[1,2] Some tumor registrars encourage the recording of staging in both systems.FIGO staging system (and modified World Health Organization [WHO] prognostic scoring system)The FIGO staging system is as follows:Table 1. Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (GTN)a,bFIGO Anatomical StagingFIGO = Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique; hCG = human chorionic gonadotropin; iu = international unit; WHO = World Health Organization.a Adapted from FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology.b To stage and allot a risk factor score, a patient's diagnosis is allocated to a stage as
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This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Endometrial Cancer Treatment
Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the cervix.The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal).Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called the myometrium and an inner lining called the endometrium. Cervical cancer usually develops slowly over time. Before cancer appears in the cervix, the cells of the cervix go through changes known as dysplasia, in which cells that are not normal begin to appear in the cervical tissue. Later, cancer cells start to grow and spread more deeply into the cervix and to surrounding areas. See the following PDQ summaries for more information about cervical cancer:Cervical Cancer PreventionCervical Cancer TreatmentScreening for cervical cancer using the Pap
Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Endometrial Cancer
The most common endometrial cancer cell type is endometrioid adenocarcinoma, which is composed of malignant glandular epithelial elements; an admixture of squamous metaplasia is not uncommon. Adenosquamous tumors contain malignant elements of both glandular and squamous epithelium; clear cell and papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium are tumors that are histologically similar to those noted in the ovary and the fallopian tube, and the prognosis is worse for these tumors. Mucinous, squamous, and undifferentiated tumors are rarely encountered. Frequency of endometrial cancer cell types is as follows: Endometrioid (75%–80%). Ciliated adenocarcinoma.Secretory adenocarcinoma.Papillary or villoglandular.Adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation.Adenoacanthoma.Adenosquamous.Uterine papillary serous (<10%).Mucinous (1%).Clear cell (4%).Squamous cell (<1%).Mixed (10%).Undifferentiated.References: Zaino RJ, Kurman R, Herbold D, et al.: The significance of squamous
Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) may be classified as follows:Hydatidiform mole (HM).Complete HM.Partial HM.Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.Invasive mole.Choriocarcinoma.Placental-site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT; very rare).Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT; even more rare). Choriocarcinoma, PSTT and ETT are often grouped under the heading gestational trophoblastic tumors. HMHM is defined as products of conception that show gross cyst-like swellings of the chorionic villi that are caused by an accumulation of fluid. There is disintegration and loss of blood vessels in the villous core. Complete HMA complete mole occurs when an ovum that has extruded its maternal nucleus is fertilized by either a single sperm, with subsequent chromosome duplication, or two sperm, resulting in either case in a diploid karyotype. The former case always yields a mole with a karyotype of 46 XX, since at least one X chromosome is required for viability and a karyotype of 46 YY is rapidly
Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (06 / 03 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.
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This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Cervical Cancer Screening
Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview
Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Cervical Cancer Prevention,Cervical Cancer Treatment,and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available. Screening With the Papanicolaou (Pap) Test: Benefits Based on solid evidence,regular screening of appropriate women for cervical cancer with the Pap test reduces mortality from cervical cancer. The benefits of screening ...