Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary
About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current
Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions to Ask Your Health Care Provider About CAM
When considering complementary and alternative therapies, patients should ask their health care provider the following questions: What side effects can be expected?What are the risks associated with this therapy?Do the known benefits outweigh the risks?What benefits can be expected from this therapy?Will the therapy interfere with conventional treatment?Is this therapy part of a clinical trial?If so, who is sponsoring the trial?Will the therapy be covered by health insurance?
Smoking in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Pharmacological Treatment
The following information is based on the successful use of pharmacological agents in the cessation of smoking in the general population. None of the following agents have been studied in large placebo-controlled studies in cancer patients for aid in smoking cessation. Dosage adjustments or titrations may be required when administering these agents to oncology patients. (Refer to Tables 1 through 7 for more information.)Nicotine Replacement TherapiesNicotine replacement therapies are designed to aid in the treatment of withdrawal symptoms associated with nicotine. Several precautions must be considered before therapy is initiated, but these precautions do not constitute absolute contraindications.Patients who are pregnant or nursing should obtain advice from a health care professional before using these products.Patients should be advised to not use these products if they continue to smoke,
Penile Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Penile Cancer
Information on penile cancer, in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the penis.
Oral Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (02 / 21 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Description of the EvidenceAdded text about a randomized controlled trial of screening versus usual care in Kerala, India; during a 15-year follow-up period, there were 138 deaths from oral cancer in the screening group with a cause–specific mortality rate of 15.4 per 100,000 person-years, and 154 deaths in the control group with at mortality rate of 17.1 per 100,000 person-years (cited Sankaranarayanan et al. as reference 19).Revised text to state that aside from the issues of generalizability to other populations and lack of an overall statistically significant result in cause–specific mortality, interpretation of the results is made difficult by serious lacks in methodologic detail about the randomization process, allocation concealment, adjustment for clustering effect, and information
Communication in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview
Communication between clinicians and patients is a multidimensional concept and involves the content of dialogue,the affective component (i.e.,what happens emotionally to the physician and patient during the encounter),and nonverbal behaviors. In oncology,communication skills are a key to achieving the important goals of the clinical encounter.[ 1 ] These goals include establishing trust and ...
Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors
Central nervous system embryonal tumors begin in embryonic (fetal) cells in the brain and spinal cord. Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors form in brain cells when the fetus is beginning to develop. The tumors may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Most CNS embryonal tumors in children are malignant. Benign brain tumors grow and press on nearby areas of the brain. They rarely spread into other tissues. Malignant brain tumors are likely to grow quickly and spread into other brain tissue. When a tumor grows into or presses on an area of the brain, it may stop that part of the brain from working the way it should. Both benign and malignant brain tumors can cause symptoms and need treatment.Although cancer is rare in children, brain tumors are the third most common type of childhood cancer, after leukemia and lymphoma. This summary discusses the treatment of primary brain tumors (tumors that begin in the brain). The treatment of metastatic brain tumors, which begin in
Topics in Complementary and Alternative Therapies (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Evaluation of CAM Approaches
It is important that the same rigorous scientific evaluation used to assess conventional approaches be used to evaluate CAM therapies. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) are sponsoring a number of clinical trials (research studies) at medical centers to evaluate CAM therapies for cancer. Conventional approaches to cancer treatment have generally been studied for safety and effectiveness through a rigorous scientific process that includes clinical trials with large numbers of patients. Less is known about the safety and effectiveness of complementary and alternative methods. Few CAM therapies have undergone rigorous evaluation. A small number of CAM therapies originally considered to be purely alternative approaches are finding a place in cancer treatment—not as cures, but as complementary therapies that may help patients feel better and recover faster. One example is acupuncture. According to a panel of
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I Melanoma Treatment
Stage I melanoma is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:T1a, N0, M0T1b, N0, M0T2a, N0, M0Standard Treatment Options for Patients With Stage I MelanomaCurrent evidence suggests that lesions 2 mm or less in thickness may be treated conservatively with radial excision margins of 1 cm. A randomized trial compared narrow margins (1 cm) with wide margins (at least 3 cm) in patients with melanomas no thicker than 2 mm.[2,3] No difference was observed between the two groups in respect to the development of metastatic disease, disease-free survival (DFS), or overall survival (OS). Two other randomized trials compared 2 cm margins with wider margins (i.e., 4 cm or 5 cm) and found no statistically significant difference in local recurrence, distant metastasis, or OS with a median follow-up of 10 years or more for both trials.[4,5,6][Level of evidence:1iiA] In the Intergroup Melanoma Surgical Trial, the reduction in margins from 4 cm to 2 cm was
Retinoblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support