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Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Penile Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage II Penile Cancer

    Stage II penile cancer is defined by the following TNM classifications:T1b, N0, M0T2, N0, M0T3, N0, M0Standard treatment options: Stage II penile cancer is most frequently managed by penile amputation for local control. Whether the amputation is partial, total, or radical will depend on the extent and location of the neoplasm. External-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy with surgical salvage are alternative approaches.[2,3,4,5,6]Treatment options under clinical evaluation: Nd:YAG laser therapy has been used to preserve the penis in selected patients with small lesions.[7]Because of the high incidence of microscopic node metastases, elective adjunctive dissection of clinically uninvolved (negative) lymph nodes in conjunction with amputation is often used for patients with poorly differentiated tumors. Lymphadenectomy, can carry substantial morbidity, such as infection, skin necrosis, wound breakdown, chronic edema, and even a low, but finite, mortality rate. The impact of

  2. Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Staging Primary CNS Lymphoma

    After primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the brain and spinal cord or to other parts of the body.When primary CNS lymphoma continues to grow, it usually does not spread beyond the central nervous system or the eye. The process used to find out if cancer has spread is called staging. It is important to know if cancer has spread to other parts of the body in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process: CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography. For primary CNS lymphoma, a CT scan is done of the

  3. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Evaluation of CAM Approaches

    It is important that the same rigorous scientific evaluation used to assess conventional approaches be used to evaluate CAM therapies. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) are sponsoring a number of clinical trials (research studies) at medical centers to evaluate CAM therapies for cancer. Conventional approaches to cancer treatment have generally been studied for safety and effectiveness through a rigorous scientific process that includes clinical trials with large numbers of patients. Less is known about the safety and effectiveness of complementary and alternative methods. Few CAM therapies have undergone rigorous evaluation. A small number of CAM therapies originally considered to be purely alternative approaches are finding a place in cancer treatment—not as cures, but as complementary therapies that may help patients feel better and recover faster. One example is acupuncture. According to a panel of

  4. Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (02 / 13 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.General Information About Thyroid CancerUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  5. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Small Intestine Cancer

    Statistics Note: Estimated new cases and deaths from small intestine cancer in the United States in 2010:[ 1 ] New cases: 6,960. Deaths: 1,100. Adenocarcinoma,lymphoma,sarcoma,and carcinoid tumors account for the majority of small intestine malignancies,which,as a whole,account for only 1% to 2% of all gastrointestinal malignancies.[ 2,3,4,5 ] As in other gastrointestinal ...

  6. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    Recurrent salivary gland cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. Recurrent salivary gland cancer may come back in the salivary glands or in other parts of the body.

  7. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular and Molecular Classifications of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) appear to originate from interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) or their stem cell-like precursors.[1,2] ICC are pacemaker-like intermediates between the GI autonomic nervous system and smooth muscle cells regulating GI motility and autonomic nerve function.[3,4] KIT-positive and KIT-dependent, ICC are located around the myenteric plexus and the muscularis propria throughout the GI tract. ICC or their stem cell-like precursors can differentiate into smooth muscle cells if KIT signaling is disrupted.[5]Approximately 95% of GIST are positive for the CD117 antigen, an epitope of KIT receptor tyrosine kinase expressed by ICC.[6] However, CD117 immunohistochemistry is not specific for GIST, as weak reactivity occurs with other mesenchymal neoplasms. Accordingly, CD117 immunostaining of tumors should be interpreted cautiously in the context of other immunomarkers and the anatomic location and morphology of the tumor in order to differentiate GIST from

  8. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  9. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Plasma Cell Neoplasms

    For more information from the National Cancer Institute about multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms, see the following:Multiple Myeloma/Other Plasma Cell Neoplasms Home PageWhat You Need to Know About™ Multiple MyelomaDrugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma and Other Plasma Cell NeoplasmsTargeted Cancer TherapiesUnderstanding Cancer Series: Targeted Therapies (Advances in Targeted Therapies and Targeted Therapies for Multiple Myeloma)Bone Marrow Transplantation and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell TransplantationBiological Therapies for CancerFor general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For

  10. Pain (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Pharmacologic Management

    Basic Principles of Cancer Pain ManagementThe World Health Organization (WHO) has described a three-step analgesic ladder as a framework for pain management.[1] It involves a stepped approach based on the severity of the pain. If the pain is mild, one may begin by prescribing a Step 1 analgesic such as acetaminophen or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Potential adverse effects should be noted, particularly the renal and gastrointestinal adverse effects of the NSAIDs. If pain persists or worsens despite appropriate dose increases, a change to a Step 2 or Step 3 analgesic is indicated. Most patients with cancer pain will require a Step 2 or Step 3 analgesic. Step 1 can be skipped in favor of Step 2 or Step 3 in patients presenting at the onset with moderate-to-severe pain. At each

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