Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (04 / 04 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.SignificanceAdded 2012 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as reference 2.Added text to state that from 2000 to 2011, significant declines occurred in the use of cigarettes among middle school (10.7% to 4.3%) and high school (27.9% to 15.8%) students (cited 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as reference 12 and 2012 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as reference 13).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary
Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Thyroid Cancer
Thyroid cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a gland at the base of the throat near the trachea (windpipe). It is shaped like a butterfly,with a right lobe and a left lobe. The isthmus,a thin piece of tissue,connects the two lobes. A healthy thyroid is a little larger than a quarter. It usually cannot be felt ...
Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Approach to Care for Children with Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
Important concepts that should be understood by those treating and caring for a child who has a brain tumor or spinal cord tumor include the following: The cause of most childhood brain tumors remains unknown.Selection of an appropriate therapy can only occur if the correct diagnosis is made and the stage of the disease is accurately determined.Children with primary brain or spinal cord tumors represent a major therapy challenge that, for optimal results, requires the coordinated efforts of pediatric specialists in fields such as neurosurgery, neuropathology, radiation oncology, pediatric oncology, neuro-oncology, neurology, rehabilitation, neuroradiology, endocrinology, and psychology, who have special expertise in the care of patients with these diseases.[2,3] For example, radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors is technically demanding and should be performed in centers that have experience in this area.For most childhood brain and spinal cord tumors, the optimal treatment
Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Late Effects of the Respiratory System
Acute and chronic pulmonary complications reported after treatment for pediatric malignancies include radiation pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and spontaneous pneumothorax. These sequelae are uncommon following contemporary therapy and most often result in subclinical injury that is detected only by imaging or formal pulmonary function testing. Chemotherapy agents with potential pulmonary toxicity commonly used in the treatment of pediatric malignancies include bleomycin, busulfan, and the nitrosoureas (carmustine and lomustine). These agents induce lung damage on their own or potentiate the damaging effects of radiation to the lung. Thus, the potential for acute or chronic pulmonary sequelae must be considered in the context of the specific chemotherapeutic agents and the radiation dose administered, the volume of lung irradiated, and the fractional radiation therapy doses. Acute pneumonitis manifested by fever, congestion, cough, and dyspnea can follow radiation therapy
Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (10 / 21 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version and images were added.
Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary
If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.
Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (02 / 21 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Stage IV and Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer Added Motzer et al. as reference 30. Revised text to state that the primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), and the data were analyzed when disease in 88% of the axitinib patients and 90% of the sorafenib patients had progressed, while 58% and 59%, respectively, had died.Revised text to state that median PFS was 8.3 months for axitinib and 5.7 months for sorafenib, and median overall survival (OS) was 20.1 months with axitinib versus 19.2 months with sorafenib; however, the largest benefit was seen in patients who received cytokines as first-line therapy and whose median PFS was 12.2 months with axitinib compared with 8.2 months with sorafenib, while median overall survival was 29.4 months with axitinib compared with 27.8 months with
Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Rectal Cancer
For more information from the National Cancer Institute about rectal cancer, see the following:Colon and Rectal Cancer Home PageWhat You Need to Know About™ Cancer of the Colon and RectumColorectal Cancer PreventionColorectal Cancer ScreeningTests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and PolypsUnusual Cancers of ChildhoodCryosurgery in Cancer Treatment: Questions and AnswersDrugs Approved for Rectal CancerTargeted Cancer TherapiesUnderstanding Cancer Series: Targeted Therapies(Advances in Targeted Therapies)Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer SyndromesFor general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For
Testicular Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (07 / 11 / 2014)
Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of testicular cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in
Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062951-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Pancreatic Cancer Treatment