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Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Stage

    Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)Treatment of stage 0 is usually local resection.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 anal cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.Stage I Anal CancerTreatment of stage I anal cancer may include the following:Local resection.External-beam radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. If cancer remains after treatment, more chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be given to avoid the need for a permanent colostomy.Internal radiation therapy.Abdominoperineal resection, if cancer remains or comes back after treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.Internal radiation therapy for cancer that remains after treatment with external-beam radiation therapy.Patients who have had

  2. Depression (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Suicide Risk in Cancer Patients

    Demographics and StatisticsStudies indicate that the incidence of suicide in cancer patients can be equal to the incidence in the general population or up to 2 to 10 times as frequent. Some studies suggest that while relatively few cancer patients commit suicide, they are at increased risk for suicide.[1,2,3] One population-based study utilizing data from the Cancer Registry of Norway linked to the Register of Deaths at Statistics Norway indicated an increased relative risk of suicide in the decade 1990-1999 within 2 years of diagnosis for males and females; however, the relative risk for females was nonsignificant. For both sexes, the risk was highest in the first months after diagnosis, and there was a significant decrease in relative risk over decades.[4] Passive suicidal thoughts are relatively common among cancer patients. The relationships between suicidal tendency and the desire for hastened death, requests for physician-assisted suicide, and/or euthanasia are complex and

  3. Vulvar Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Recurrent Vulvar Cancer

    Treatment of recurrent vulvar cancer may include the following:Wide local excision with or without radiation therapy to treat cancer that has come back in the same area.Radical vulvectomy and pelvic exenteration to treat cancer that has come back in the same area.Chemotherapy and radiation therapy with or without surgery.Radiation therapy followed by surgery or chemotherapy.Radiation therapy as palliative treatment to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.A clinical trial of a new treatment.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent vulvar cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

  4. Oral Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Oral Cancer Prevention

    Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.The following are risk factors for oral cancer:Tobacco useUsing tobacco is the leading cause of oral cancer.All forms of tobacco, including cigarettes, pipes, cigars, and chewing (smokeless) tobacco, can cause oral cancer. For cigarette smokers, the risk of oral cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Tobacco use is most likely to cause oral cancer in the floor of the mouth, but also causes cancer in other parts of mouth and throat.The risk of oral cancer is greater in people who use both tobacco and alcohol than it

  5. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - General CAM Information

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)—also referred to as integrative medicine—includes a broad range of healing philosophies, approaches, and therapies. A therapy is generally called complementary when it is used in addition to conventional treatments; it is often called alternative when it is used instead of conventional treatment. (Conventional treatments are those that are widely accepted and practiced by the mainstream medical community.) Depending on how they are used, some therapies can be considered either complementary or alternative. Complementary and alternative therapies are used in an effort to prevent illness, reduce stress, prevent or reduce side effects and symptoms, or control or cure disease. Unlike conventional treatments for cancer, complementary and alternative therapies are often not covered by insurance companies. Patients should check with their insurance provider to find out about coverage for complementary and alternative therapies. Cancer patients

  6. Unusual Cancers of Childhood (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Unusual Cancers of Childhood

    Unusual cancers of childhood are cancers rarely seen in children. Cancer in children and teenagers is rare. Since 1975,the number of new cases of childhood cancer has slowly increased. The number of deaths from childhood cancer is less than half what it was in 1975. Unusual cancers are so rare that most children's hospitals see fewer than two cases in a year. Because the unusual cancers are ...

  7. Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about breast cancer prevention. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

  8. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  9. Selected Vegetables/Sun's Soup (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview

    This complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information summary provides an overview of the use of Selected Vegetables/Sun’s Soup as an anticancer treatment. The summary includes a brief history of Selected Vegetables/Sun’s Soup and a review of animal and human studies. The information in the Human/Clinical Studies section is summarized in a table located at the end of that section. This ...

  10. Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062877-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Esophageal Cancer Screening

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