Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Primary CNS Lymphoma
Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.) Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is defined as lymphoma limited to ...
Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Nonepidemic Gay-related Kaposi Sarcoma
There is a type of nonepidemic Kaposi sarcoma that develops in homosexual men who have no signs or symptoms of HIV infection. This type of Kaposi sarcoma progresses slowly, with new lesions appearing every few years. The lesions are most common on the arms, legs, and genitals, but can develop anywhere on the skin.This type of Kaposi sarcoma is rare and treatment information is not included in this summary.
Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (05 / 16 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Anxiety Disorders: Description and Etiology
Anxiety occurs to varying degrees in patients with cancer and may increase as the disease progresses or as treatment becomes more aggressive. Investigators have found that 44% of patients with cancer reported some anxiety, and 23% reported significant anxiety.[2,3] Anxiety can be part of normal adaptation to cancer. In most cases, the reactions are time limited and may motivate patients and families to take steps to reduce anxiety (e.g., gain information), which may assist in adjusting to the illness. However, as discussed above, anxiety reactions that are more prolonged or intense are classified as adjustment disorders. These disorders can negatively affect quality of life and interfere with a cancer patient's ability to function socially and emotionally. These anxiety reactions require intervention. Anxiety disorders may also be secondary to other aspects of the medical condition, such as uncontrolled pain,
Vulvar Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Vulvar Cancer
Treatment and outcome depend on the site and extent of recurrence. Radical excision of localized recurrence may be considered if technically feasible. Palliative radiation therapy is used for some patients. Radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy may be associated with substantial disease-free periods in some patients with a small local recurrence.[3,4,5] When local recurrence occurs more than 2 years after primary treatment, a combination of radiation therapy and surgery may result in a 5-year survival rate of greater than 50%.[6,7]There is no standard treatment approach in the management of metastatic vulvar cancer. There is no standard chemotherapy, and reports describing the use of this modality are anecdotal. However, by largely extrapolating from regimens used for anal or cervical cancer, chemotherapy has been used, but with no clear evidence of improvement in survival or palliation. Regimens have included various combinations of 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin,
Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IIIA Anal Cancer
Stage IIIA anal cancer presents clinically as stage II in most instances and is determined to be IIIA by clinically evident perirectal nodal disease or adjacent organ involvement. Endorectal or endoanal ultrasound may aid in pretreatment staging. Standard treatment options:As shown in the RTOG-8314 trial, treatment used is the same as for stage I and II disease, including the use of radiation therapy plus chemotherapy.[1,2]Radical resection is reserved for continued residual or recurrent cancer in the anal canal after nonoperative therapy.Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage IIIA anal cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.References: Sischy B, Doggett RL, Krall JM, et al.: Definitive irradiation and chemotherapy for
Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening
Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of stomach cancer screening include the following:Finding stomach cancer may not improve health or help you live longer. Screening may not improve your health or help you live longer if you have advanced stomach cancer. Some cancers never cause symptoms or become life-threatening, but if found by a screening test, the cancer may be treated. It is not known if treatment of these cancers would help you live longer than if no treatment were given, and treatments for cancer may have serious side effects.False-negative test results can occur.Screening test results may appear to be normal even though stomach cancer is present. A person who receives a
Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in pregnant and postpartum women,occurring in about 1 in 3,000 pregnant women. The average patient is between 32 to 38 years of age and,with many women choosing to delay childbearing,it is likely that the incidence of breast cancer during pregnancy will increase. Breast cancer pathology is similar in age-matched pregnant and nonpregnant women. Hormone ...
Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current
Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Anal Cancer
Anal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the anus. The anus is the end of the large intestine,below the rectum,through which stool (solid waste) leaves the body. The anus is formed partly from the outer,skin layers of the body and partly from the intestine. Two ring-like muscles,called sphincter muscles,open and close the anal opening to let stool ...