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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Prostate Cancer

    Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds part of the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the

  2. Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (07 / 30 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.General Information About Adult Hodgkin LymphomaUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).Added Evens et al. as reference 5.Cellular Classification of Adult Hodgkin LymphomaAdded text to state that among 10,019 patients who underwent central expert pathology review for the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG), 84 patients were identified as having lymphocyte-depleted classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) (cited Klimm et al. as reference 3). Also added that these patients present with more advanced-stage HL and usually with B symptoms. Treatment Option OverviewAdded 2011 Swerdlow et al. as reference 9.Added text to state that in a retrospective Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) analysis, stage-specific survival was

  3. Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    Incidence and MortalityAdrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor that affects only 0.72 persons per one million population.[1] Although it mainly occurs in adults, children can be affected, too. The median age at diagnosis is 46 years. Historically, only about 30% of these malignancies are confined to the adrenal gland at the time of diagnosis.[2] However, recently, more ACCs have been diagnosed at early states, most likely due to the widespread use of high-quality imaging techniques. Prognostic FactorsRetrospective studies have identified the following three important prognostic factors:[3]Completeness of resection.Stage of disease.Pathological grade.Patients who have low-grade tumors without evidence of invasion into local tissues or spread to lymph nodes have an improved prognosis. The role of other prognostic indicators is controversial. Clinical FeaturesIn approximately 60% of patients, symptoms related to excessive hormone secretion are the main reasons for seeking medical

  4. Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the use of Cannabis and cannabinoids in the treatment of people with cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already

  5. Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  6. Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Head and Neck Cancers

    Childhood sarcomas often occur in the head and neck area and they are described in other sections. Unusual pediatric head and neck cancers include nasopharyngeal carcinoma, esthesioneuroblastoma, thyroid tumors, oral cancer, salivary gland cancer, laryngeal carcinoma, papillomatosis, and respiratory tract carcinoma involving the NUT gene on chromosome 15.[1] The prognosis, diagnosis, classification, and treatment of these head and neck cancers are discussed below. It must be emphasized that these cancers are seen very infrequently in patients younger than 15 years, and most of the evidence is derived from case series. Nasopharyngeal CarcinomaIncidenceNasopharyngeal carcinoma arises in the lining of the nasal cavity and pharynx.[2,3] This tumor accounts for about one-third of all cancers of the upper airways. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is very uncommon in children younger than 10 years

  7. Changes to This Summary (10 / 18 / 2012)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Stage Information for Uterine SarcomaUpdated staging information for 2010 (cited Pecorelli and Edge et al. as references 1 and 2, respectively).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  8. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - General CAM Information

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)—also referred to as integrative medicine—includes a broad range of healing philosophies, approaches, and therapies. A therapy is generally called complementary when it is used in addition to conventional treatments; it is often called alternative when it is used instead of conventional treatment. (Conventional treatments are those that are widely accepted and practiced by the mainstream medical community.) Depending on how they are used, some therapies can be considered either complementary or alternative. Complementary and alternative therapies are used in an effort to prevent illness, reduce stress, prevent or reduce side effects and symptoms, or control or cure disease. Unlike conventional treatments for cancer, complementary and alternative therapies are often not covered by insurance companies. Patients should check with their insurance provider to find out about coverage for complementary and alternative therapies. Cancer patients

  9. Mycosis Fungoides and the Sézary Syndrome Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Mycosis Fungoides and the Sézary Syndrome

    The stages that follow are defined by TNM classification. Peripheral blood involvement with mycosis fungoides or Sézary syndrome (MF/SS) cells is correlated with more advanced skin stage, lymph node and visceral involvement, and shortened survival but probably provides no independent prognostic information beyond that associated with TNM staging. In a multivariate analysis, the two most important prognostic factors are the presence of visceral disease and type of skin involvement. MF/SS have a formal staging system proposed by the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas (ISCL) and the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC).[1]Definitions of TNMThe American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has designated staging by TNM classification to define MF.[2]Table 1. ISCL/EORTC Revision to the Classification of Mycosis Fungoides and the Sézary SyndromeaSkinEORTC = European Organization of Research and

  10. Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Special Considerations in Pediatric Populations

    Altered dental growth and development is a frequent complication in long-term cancer survivors who received high-dose chemotherapy and/or head/neck radiation for childhood malignancies.[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8] Radiation doses as low as 4 Gy have been shown to cause localized dental defects in humans.[9,10]Developmental disturbances in children treated before age 12 years generally affect size, shape, and eruption of teeth as well as craniofacial development:Abnormal tooth formation manifests as decreased crown size, shortened and conical shaped roots, and microdontia; on occasion, complete agenesis may occur.Eruption of teeth can be delayed, including increased frequency of impacted maxillary canines.Shortened root length is associated with diminished alveolar processes, leading to decreased occlusal vertical dimension.Conditioning-induced injury to maxillary and mandibular growth centers can compromise full maturation of the craniofacial complex.Because the changes tend to be

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