Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (06 / 03 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Colorectal Cancer Prevention
Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.The following risk factors increase the risk of colorectal cancer:AgeThe risk of colorectal cancer increases after age 50. Most cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed after age 50.Family history of colorectal cancerHaving a parent, brother, sister, or child with colorectal cancer doubles a person's risk of colorectal cancer.Personal historyHaving a personal history of inflammatory bowel disease increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Inherited riskThe risk of colorectal cancer is increased when certain gene changes linked to familial
Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma
Intraocular melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the eye.Intraocular melanoma begins in the middle of three layers of the wall of the eye. The outer layer includes the white sclera (the white of the eye) and the clear cornea at the front of the eye. The inner layer has a lining of nerve tissue, called the retina, which senses light and sends images along the optic nerve to the brain.The middle layer, where intraocular melanoma forms, is called the uvea or uveal tract, and has three main parts:IrisThe iris is the colored area at the front of the eye (the eye color). It can be seen through the clear cornea. The pupil is in the center of the iris and it changes size to let more or less light into the eye. Intraocular melanoma of the iris is usually a small tumor that grows slowly and rarely spreads to other parts of the body.Ciliary bodyThe ciliary body is a ring of tissue with muscle fibers that change the size of the pupil and the shape of the
Endometrial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
There are different types of treatment for patients with endometrial cancer.Different types of treatment are available for patients with endometrial cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Four types of standard treatment are used: SurgerySurgery (removing the cancer in an operation) is the most common treatment for endometrial cancer. The following surgical procedures may be used: Total hysterectomy: Surgery to remove the uterus, including the cervix. If the uterus and cervix are
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a rare myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the excessive development of white blood cells in the spongy tissue found inside large bones of the body (bone marrow),spleen,liver and blood. As the disease progresses,the leukemic cells invade other areas of the body including the intestinal tract,kidneys,lungs,gonads and lymph nodes. There are two ...
Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
Because of the diffuse nature of central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas, aggressive surgical decompression with partial or gross total removal of the tumor is of no benefit to the patient. Median survival with surgery alone is in the range of only 1 to 5 months. Until the mid 1990s, radiation therapy had been the standard treatment, with doses of up to 45 Gy using standard fractionation. A prospective trial by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG-8315) used 40 Gy whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and a 20 Gy boost to the tumor and found that the results were no better than had been previously reported with a median survival of 1 year and 28% of the patients surviving 2 years.[1,2] Disease recurs in the brain in 92% of patients despite high doses of radiation. The addition of spinal-axis radiation does not affect survival because it does not prevent cerebral relapse. Two multicenter, prospective trials (including RTOG-8806) used preirradiation cyclophosphamide,
Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Nongerminomatous Germ Cell Tumors
Treatment OptionsThe prognosis for children with nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) remains inferior in comparison to germinomas. While difficult to state definitively due to the small number of patients, it appears that patients with NGGCTs and higher elevations in tumor markers, particularly alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), have a worse prognosis.[1,2] With the current treatment regimens, the 10-year overall survival (OS) for NGGCTs is between 70% and 80%.[3,4] NGGCTs are radiosensitive; however, survival following standard craniospinal irradiation alone has been poor, ranging from 20% to 45% at 5 years. The majority of NGGCTs relapse within 18 months. OS rates can be stratified by histologic subtypes. Patients with pure choriocarcinoma, yolk sac tumor, or embryonal carcinoma appear to have the worst outcomes compared with patients with pure germinoma or teratoma mixed with other NGGCT elements. The addition of chemotherapy has been shown to improve OS rates. Effective agents
Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of parathyroid cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in
Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current
Important It is possible that the main title of the report Pseudomyxoma Peritonei is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report. ...