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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of stomach cancer screening include the following:Finding stomach cancer may not improve health or help you live longer. Screening may not improve your health or help you live longer if you have advanced stomach cancer. Some cancers never cause symptoms or become life-threatening, but if found by a screening test, the cancer may be treated. It is not known if treatment of these cancers would help you live longer than if no treatment were given, and treatments for cancer may have serious side effects.False-negative test results can occur.Screening test results may appear to be normal even though stomach cancer is present. A person who receives a

  2. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in pregnant and postpartum women,occurring in about 1 in 3,000 pregnant women. The average patient is between 32 to 38 years of age and,with many women choosing to delay childbearing,it is likely that the incidence of breast cancer during pregnancy will increase. Breast cancer pathology is similar in age-matched pregnant and nonpregnant women. Hormone ...

  3. Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  4. Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Anal Cancer

    Anal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the anus. The anus is the end of the large intestine,below the rectum,through which stool (solid waste) leaves the body. The anus is formed partly from the outer,skin layers of the body and partly from the intestine. Two ring-like muscles,called sphincter muscles,open and close the anal opening to let stool ...

  5. Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Orofacial Pain in Cancer Patients

    Pain in cancer patients may arise from onset of the disease through survivorship and may be:[1]Caused by the malignant disease.Caused by acute or chronic complications of cancer therapy.Coincidental and unrelated to the cancer. Cancer pain causes increased morbidity, reduced performance status, increased anxiety and depression, and diminished quality of life (QOL). Dimensions of acute and chronic pain include the following:SensoryPhysiologicAffectiveCognitiveBehavioralSocioculturalManagement of head and neck pain and oral pain may be particularly challenging because eating, speech, swallowing, and other motor functions of the head and neck and oropharynx are constant pain triggers.Orofacial Pain due to CancerAcute and chronic pain in cancer can result from several factors, including the following:Pain due to malignant disease:Local/regional cancer.Oral involvement in systemic/hematopoietic cancer.Metastatic disease.Pain due to treatment:Surgery.Radiation.Chemotherapy.Pain

  6. Smoking in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Pharmacological Treatment

    The following information is based on the successful use of pharmacological agents in the cessation of smoking in the general population. None of the following agents have been studied in large placebo-controlled studies in cancer patients for aid in smoking cessation. Dosage adjustments or titrations may be required when administering these agents to oncology patients. (Refer to Tables 1 through 7 for more information.)Nicotine Replacement TherapiesNicotine replacement therapies are designed to aid in the treatment of withdrawal symptoms associated with nicotine. Several precautions must be considered before therapy is initiated, but these precautions do not constitute absolute contraindications.Patients who are pregnant or nursing should obtain advice from a health care professional before using these products.Patients should be advised to not use these products if they continue to smoke,

  7. Family Caregivers in Cancer (PDQ®): Supportive care - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000682690-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Family Caregivers in Cancer

  8. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about treatment of plasma cell neoplasms (including multiple myeloma). It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made

  9. Retinoblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information

    This cancer treatment information summary provides an overview of the prognosis,diagnosis,classification,and treatment of retinoblastoma. The National Cancer Institute provides the PDQ pediatric cancer treatment information summaries as a public service to increase the availability of evidence-based cancer information to health professionals,patients,and the public. These summaries are ...

  10. Endometrial Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview

    Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Endometrial Cancer Screening; Endometrial Cancer Treatment; and Uterine Sarcoma Treatment are also available.Intervention Associated With Decreased RiskOral contraceptivesBased on solid evidence, at least 1 year's use of oral contraceptives containing estrogen and progesterone decreases endometrial cancer risk, proportionate to duration of use. This benefit lasts at least 15 years after cessation.[1,2]Magnitude of Effect: Use of oral contraceptives for 4 years reduced risk by 56%, 8 years by 67%, and 12 years by 72%.Study Design: Case-control studies and prospective studies.Internal Validity: Good.Consistency: Good.External Validity: Good.HarmsBased on solid evidence, current use of oral contraceptives is associated with an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and myocardial infarction, especially among women who smoke cigarettes and who are older than 35 years.Study Design: Randomized controlled clinical trials.Internal Validity:

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