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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Ovarian Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - What is screening?

    Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early,it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear,cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain types of cancer. They also study the things we do and the ...

  2. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    Cancer of the hypopharynx is uncommon; approximately 2,500 new cases are diagnosed in the United States each year.[ 1 ] The peak incidence of this cancer occurs in males and females aged 50 to 60 years.[ 2 ] Excessive alcohol and tobacco use are the primary risk factors for hypopharyngeal cancer.[ 3,4 ] In the United States,hypopharyngeal cancers are more common in men than in women.[ 5 ] In ...

  3. Breast Cancer Screening - Treatment Options for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Treatment of triple-negative breast cancer may include the following:Chemotherapy followed by surgery (breast-conserving surgery, total mastectomy, or modified radical mastectomy) and lymph node dissection.A clinical trial of combination chemotherapy with drugs that are often used to treat breast cancer and drugs that are not usually used to treat breast cancer.A clinical trial of PARP inhibitor therapy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with triple-negative breast cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

  4. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    EpidemiologyAlthough they comprise fewer than 1% of all gastrointestinal (GI) tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract.[1] It has been estimated that there are 3,300 to 6,000 new GIST cases per year in the United States.[2] A study based on Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry data found that the age-adjusted yearly incidence of GIST in the United States was 6.8 per million from 1992 to 2000.[3] However, the true incidence is not known, in part because many tumors have not been tested for the characteristic KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) gene mutations. In addition, small, indolent GIST, only a few millimeters in diameter, are common in the general population and are not included in cancer registries.[4,5] GIST are equally distributed across all geographic and ethnic groups and men and women are equally affected. Most patients present between the ages

  5. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Laboratory / Animal / Preclinical Studies

    Effects of Newcastle Disease Virus on Human Cancer CellsThe ability of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) to replicate efficiently in human cancer cells has been demonstrated in both laboratory studies and animal studies.[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12] Reviewed in [13,14] Several of these studies have provided much of the evidence that lytic strains of NDV are also oncolytic.[3,4,5,6,8,9,10,12] Reviewed in [13]Strain 73-T, which is lytic, has been shown to replicate efficiently in human tumor cells [15] and kill the following types of human cancer cells in vitro: fibrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, neuroblastoma, bladder carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, melanoma, Wilms tumor, and myeloid leukemia;[3,6,8,9] however, this strain did not kill human B-cell lymphoma (i.e., Burkitt lymphoma) cells in vitro.[8] In addition, strain 73-T did not kill normal, proliferating human white blood cells or normal human skin fibroblasts in vitro,[3,6,8] but it killed normal human lung fibroblasts in vitro at the same

  6. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter

    Recurrent transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the renal pelvis, ureter, or other parts of the body.

  7. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Vaginal Cancer

    Statistics Note: Estimated new cases and deaths from vaginal (and other female genital) cancer in the United States in 2010:[ 1 ] New cases: 2,300. Deaths: 780. Carcinomas of the vagina are uncommon tumors comprising 1% to 2% of gynecologic malignancies. They can be effectively treated,and when found in early stages,are often curable. The histologic distinction between squamous cell ...

  8. Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stages of Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    After a gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the stomach and intestines or to other parts of the body. Staging is the process used to find out how far the cancer has spread. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. The results of tests and procedures used to diagnose gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumors may also be used for staging. See the General Information section for a description of these tests and procedures. A bone scan may be done to check if there are rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, in the bone. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive material collects in the bones and is detected by a scanner. There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.Cancer can spread through tissue, the lymph system, and the blood:Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began

  9. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with oropharyngeal cancer. Different types of treatment are available for patients with oropharyngeal cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Patients with oropharyngeal cancer should have their treatment planned by a team of doctors with expertise in treating head and neck cancer.The patient's treatment will be overseen by a medical oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating people with cancer. Because the oropharynx helps

  10. Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Other Rare Unusual Cancers of Childhood

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia SyndromesMultiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromesMultiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are inherited disorders that affect the endocrine system. The endocrine system is made up of glands and cells that make hormones and release them into the blood. MEN syndromes may cause hyperplasia (the growth of too many normal cells) or tumors that may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).There are several types of MEN syndrome and each type may cause different conditions or cancers. Patients and family members with an increased risk of these syndromes should have genetic counseling and tests to check for the syndromes. The two main types of MEN syndromes are MEN1 and MEN2:MEN1 syndrome is also called Werner syndrome. This syndrome can cause tumors in the parathyroid, pancreas, and pituitary glands. A diagnosis of MEN1 syndrome is usually made when tumors are found in two or three of these glands. MEN1 syndrome may also cause tumors in the adrenal

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