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Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Cancer

  1. Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Classic Kaposi Sarcoma

    Classic Kaposi sarcoma is found most often in older men of Italian or Eastern European Jewish origin.Classic Kaposi sarcoma is a rare disease that gets worse slowly over many years. Symptoms of classic Kaposi sarcoma may include slow-growing lesions on the legs and feet.Patients may have one or more red, purple, or brown skin lesions on the legs and feet, most often on the ankles or soles of the feet. Over time, lesions may form in other parts of the body, such as the stomach, intestines, or lymph nodes. The lesions usually don't cause any symptoms, but may grow in size and number over a period of 10 years or more. Pressure from the lesions may block the flow of lymph and blood in the legs and cause painful swelling. Lesions in the digestive tract may cause gastrointestinal bleeding.Another cancer may develop. Some patients with classic Kaposi sarcoma may develop another type of cancer before the Kaposi sarcoma lesions appear or later in life. Most often, this second cancer is

  2. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

    DysgerminomasStandard treatment options:Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with or without lymphangiography or computed tomography (CT).Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by observation.Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant radiation therapy or chemotherapy.For patients with stage I dysgerminoma, unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy conserving the uterus and opposite ovary is accepted treatment of the younger patient who wants to preserve fertility or a pregnancy. Postoperative lymphangiography or CT is indicated before treatment decisions are made for patients who have not had careful surgical and pathological examination of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes during surgery. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Sexuality and Reproductive Issues for more information on fertility.)Patients who have been completely staged and have stage IA tumors may be observed carefully after surgery without adjuvant treatment. About 15% to 25% of these patients will relapse, but they can be treated

  3. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

  4. Cancer Genetics Overview (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about cancer genetics. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Cancer Genetics Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which Board members

  5. Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000258010-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Endometrial Cancer Screening

  6. Gerson Therapy (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - General CAM Information

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)—also referred to as integrative medicine—includes a broad range of healing philosophies, approaches, and therapies. A therapy is generally called complementary when it is used in addition to conventional treatments; it is often called alternative when it is used instead of conventional treatment. (Conventional treatments are those that are widely accepted and practiced by the mainstream medical community.) Depending on how they are used, some therapies can be considered either complementary or alternative. Complementary and alternative therapies are used in an effort to prevent illness, reduce stress, prevent or reduce side effects and symptoms, or control or cure disease. Unlike conventional treatments for cancer, complementary and alternative therapies are often not covered by insurance companies. Patients should check with their insurance provider to find out about coverage for complementary and alternative therapies. Cancer patients

  7. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions and Answers About Cartilage (Bovine and Shark)

    What is cartilage?Cartilage is a type of tough, flexible connective tissue that forms parts of the skeleton in many animals. Cartilage contains cells called chondrocytes, which are surrounded by collagen (a fibrous protein) and proteoglycans, which are made of protein and carbohydrate.Products containing cartilage are sold in the United States as dietary supplements. Companies that make cartilage products may not have a process in place to check that all batches they make are exactly the same. This means different batches of a cartilage product may contain different amounts or strengths of ingredients. Different binding agents (substances that make loose mixtures stick together) and fillers may be used in different batches. Therefore, the results of a particular clinical trial may be true only for the batch that was used in the study. What is the history of the discovery and use of cartilage as a complementary or alternative treatment for cancer?Cartilage from cows (bovine

  8. Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview for Colon Cancer

    Table 6. Standard Treatment Options for Stages 0–III Colon CancerStage (TNM Staging Criteria)Standard Treatment OptionsStage 0 Colon CancerSurgeryStage I Colon CancerSurgeryStage II Colon CancerSurgeryStage III Colon CancerSurgery Adjuvant chemotherapyTable 7. Treatment Options for Stage IV and Recurrent Colon CancerStage (TNM Staging Criteria)Treatment OptionsTreatment of Liver MetastasisSurgeryNeoadjuvant chemotherapyLocal ablationAdjuvant chemotherapyIntra-arterial chemotherapyTreatment of Stage IV and Recurrent Colon CancerSurgeryChemotherapy and targeted therapySecond-line chemotherapyPrimary Surgical TherapyStandard treatment for patients with colon cancer has been open surgical resection of the primary and regional lymph nodes for localized disease.The role of laparoscopic techniques [1,2,3,4] in the treatment of colon cancer has been examined in two studies.Evidence (laparoscopic techniques):A multicenter, prospective, randomized, noninferiority trial

  9. Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification

    Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor that is characterized by the direct formation of bone or osteoid tissue by the tumor cells. The World Health Organization's histologic classification [1] of bone tumors separates the osteosarcomas into central (medullary) and surface (peripheral) [2,3] tumors and recognizes a number of subtypes within each group. Central (Medullary) TumorsConventional central osteosarcomas. Telangiectatic osteosarcomas.[4,5]Intraosseous well-differentiated (low-grade) osteosarcomas.Small-cell osteosarcomas.Surface (Peripheral) Tumors Parosteal (juxtacortical) well-differentiated (low-grade) osteosarcomas.[6,7] Periosteal osteosarcoma: low-grade to intermediate-grade osteosarcomas.[8,9,10] High-grade surface osteosarcomas.[3,11,12]The most common pathologic subtype is conventional central osteosarcoma, which is characterized by areas of necrosis, atypical mitoses, and malignant osteoid tissue and/or cartilage. The other subtypes are much less common, each occurring at

  10. Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about testicular cancer screening. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

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