Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer
Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.) The low objective response rate and lack of survival benefit with current ...
Stages of Pancreatic Cancer
Tests and procedures to stage pancreatic cancer are usually done at the same time as diagnosis. The following stages are used for pancreatic cancer: Stage 0 In stage 0,the cancer is found only in the lining of the pancreas. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ. Stage I In stage I,cancer is found only in the pancreas. Stage I is divided into stage IA and stage IB,based on the size of ...
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Treatment Options by Stage
Stage I Pancreatic Cancer Treatment of stage I pancreatic cancer may include the following: Surgery alone. Surgery with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. A clinical trial of surgery followed by radiation therapy with chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is given before,during,and after the radiation therapy. A clinical trial of surgery followed by chemotherapy. This summary section refers to ...
Recurrent and Progressive Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
There is no established therapy for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors that recur or progress after prior therapy. Deciding on further treatment depends on many factors, including:The specific cancer.Prior treatment.Site of recurrence.Individual patient considerations.Attempts at re-resection of local tumors that have recurred or metastatic lesions may offer palliation, when technically feasible. Intra-arterial chemotherapy is a consideration for patients with liver metastases. Patients with hepatic-dominant disease and substantial symptoms caused by tumor bulk or hormone-release syndromes may benefit from continuous-infusion intra-arterial chemotherapy or procedures that reduce hepatic arterial blood flow to metastases (hepatic arterial occlusion with embolization or with chemoembolization).[2,3,4,5,6,7] Such treatment may also be combined with systemic chemotherapy. A variety of systemic agents have shown biologic or palliative activity,[1,8] including:Somatostatin
Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
Recurrent pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are tumors that have recurred (come back) after being treated. The tumors may come back in the pancreas or in other parts of the body.
Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer
Chemotherapy occasionally produces objective antitumor response,but the low percentage of significant responses and lack of survival advantage warrant use of therapies under evaluation.[ 1 ] STANDARD TREATMENT OPTIONS: Chemotherapy (fluorouracil [ 2 ] or gemcitabine [ 3,4,5 ]). Palliative surgical bypass procedures,endoscopic or radiologically placed stents.[ 6,7 ] Palliative radiation ...
Treatment Options for Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer
Treatment of recurrent pancreatic cancer may include the following: Chemotherapy. Palliative surgery or stent placement to bypass blocked areas in ducts or the small intestine. Palliative radiation therapy. Other palliative medical care to reduce symptoms,such as nerve blocks to relieve pain. Clinical trials of chemotherapy or biologic therapy. This summary section refers to specific ...
Treatment Option Overview
Localized DiseaseIf technically and medically feasible, primary management of endocrine tumors of the pancreas involves surgical resection with curative intent. Given the rare nature of these tumors, surgical approaches are based upon case series and expert opinion rather than randomized controlled trials. The surgical options listed below are based on retrospective series from single reporting centers.[2,3,4][Level of evidence: 3iiD or 3iiiD] Adjuvant therapy has no proven benefit and is, therefore, investigational. There have been no well-controlled trials of adjuvant therapy after complete tumor resection.Surgical Cytoreduction for MetastasesSurgery plays a role even in the setting of metastatic disease. The symptoms of metastatic functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) may be ameliorated by the reduction of overall tumor burden through surgical debulking.The liver is a common site of metastasis from pancreatic NETs. Because of the slow growth rate of many NETs,
Stages of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
The plan for cancer treatment depends on where the NET is found in the pancreas and whether it has spread. The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the pancreas or to other parts of the body is called staging. The results of the tests and procedures used to diagnose pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are also used to find out whether the cancer has spread. See the General Information section for a description of these tests and procedures. Although there is a standard staging system for pancreatic NETs, it is not used to plan treatment. Treatment of pancreatic NETs is based on the following: Whether the cancer is found in one place in the pancreas.Whether the cancer is found in several places in the pancreas.Whether the cancer has spread to lymph nodes near the pancreas or to other parts of the body such as the liver, lung, peritoneum, or bone.There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:Through tissue.