Classical techniques of acupuncture include needling, moxibustion, and cupping. Acupressure, using fingers or mechanical devices to apply pressure on acupuncture points is based on the same principles as acupuncture. Moxibustion is a method in which an herb (Artemisia vulgaris) is burned above the skin or on an acupuncture point for the purpose of warming it to alleviate symptoms. Cupping promotes blood circulation and stimulates acupuncture points by creating a vacuum or negative pressure on the surface of the skin. During the past several decades, various new auxiliary devices have been developed. Acupuncture devices such as electroacupuncture (EA) machines and heat lamps are commonly used to enhance the effects of acupuncture.
In addition to classical acupuncture techniques, other techniques have been developed and are sometimes used in cancer management. These include trigger point acupuncture, laser acupuncture, acupuncture point injection, and techniques focusing on particular regions of the body: auricular acupuncture, scalp acupuncture, face acupuncture, hand acupuncture, nose acupuncture, and foot acupuncture. Of these, auricular acupuncture is the most commonly used.
In clinical practice, most acupuncturists in the United States follow the traditional theories and principles of Chinese medicine. However, there are other schools of acupuncture practice, including medical acupuncture, which have different theories regarding meridians and acupuncture point locations.
Although acupuncture has been practiced for millennia, it has come under scientific investigation only recently. In 1976, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classified acupuncture needles as investigational devices (Class III) (www.fda.gov), resulting in a number of research studies on the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture. In November 1994, the Office of Alternative Medicine (the predecessor of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored an NIH-FDA workshop on the status of acupuncture needle usage. Two years later, the FDA reclassified acupuncture needles as medical devices (Class II) without, however, giving specific indications for their use. In 1997, NIH held a Consensus Development Conference on Acupuncture to evaluate its safety and efficacy. The 12-member panel concluded that promising research results showing the efficacy of acupuncture in certain conditions have emerged and that further research is likely to uncover additional areas in which acupuncture intervention will be useful. The panel stated that "there is clear evidence that needle acupuncture treatment is effective for postoperative and chemotherapy N/V." It also stated that there are "a number of other pain-related conditions for which acupuncture may be effective as an adjunct therapy, an acceptable alternative, or as part of a comprehensive treatment program," and it agreed that further research is likely to uncover additional areas in which acupuncture intervention will be useful.