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    Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - CNS-directed Therapy for Childhood ALL

    Table 2. CNS-Directed Treatment Regimens for Newly Diagnosed Childhood ALL continued...

    CNS Therapy for High-risk Patients

    Controversy exists as to which high-risk patients should be treated with cranial radiation. Depending on the protocol, up to 20% of children with ALL receive cranial radiation as part of their CNS-directed therapy, even if they present without CNS involvement at diagnosis. Patients receiving cranial radiation on many treatment regimens include the following:[10]

    • Patients with T-cell phenotype and high initial WBC count.
    • Patients with high-risk precursor B-cell ALL (e.g., extremely high presenting leukocyte counts and/or adverse cytogenetic abnormalities and/or CNS3 disease).

    Both the proportion of patients receiving radiation and the dose of radiation administered have decreased over the last 2 decades.

    Evidence (cranial radiation):

    1. In a trial conducted between 1990 and 1995, the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) group demonstrated that a reduced dose of prophylactic radiation (12 Gy instead of 18 Gy) provided effective CNS prophylaxis in high-risk patients.[23]
    2. In the follow-up trial conducted by the BFM group between 1995 and 2000 (BFM-95), cranial radiation was administered to approximately 20% of patients (compared with 70% on the previous trial), including patients with T-cell phenotype, a slow early response (as measured by peripheral blood blast count after a 1-week steroid prophase), and/or adverse cytogenetic abnormalities.[16]
      • While the rate of isolated CNS relapses was higher in the nonirradiated higher-risk patients compared with historic (irradiated) cohorts, their overall EFS rate was not significantly different.
    3. Several groups, including the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (SJCRH), the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), have published results of trials that omitted cranial radiation for all patients, including high-risk subsets.[11,12,24] Most of these trials have included at least four doses of high-dose methotrexate during postinduction consolidation and an increased frequency of intrathecal chemotherapy. The SJCRH and DCOG studies also included frequent vincristine/dexamethasone pulses and intensified dosing of L-asparaginase,[11,12] while the EORTC trials included additional high-dose methotrexate and multiple doses of high-dose cytarabine during postinduction treatment phases for CNS3 (CSF with ≥5 WBC/µL and cytospin positive for blasts) patients.[24]
      • The 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated CNS relapse on those trials was between 2% and 4%, although some patient subsets had a significantly higher rate of CNS relapse. On the SJCRH study, clinical features associated with a significantly higher risk of isolated CNS relapse included T-cell phenotype, the t(1;19) translocation, or the presence of blasts in the CSF at diagnosis.[11]
      • The overall EFS for the SJCRH study was 85.6% and 81% for the DCOG study, both in line with outcomes achieved by contemporaneously conducted clinical trials on which some patients received prophylactic radiation, but was lower on the EORTC trial (8-year EFS, 69.6%).[24]
      • Of note, on the SJCRH study, 33 of 498 (6.6%) patients in first remission with high-risk features (including 26 with high minimal residual disease, six with Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL, and one with near haploidy) received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant , which included total-body irradiation.[11]
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