Cancer of the hypopharynx is uncommon; approximately 2,500 new cases are diagnosed in the United States each year. The peak incidence of this cancer occurs in males and females aged 50 to 60 years. Excessive alcohol and tobacco use are the primary risk factors for hypopharyngeal cancer.[3,4] In the United States, hypopharyngeal cancers are more common in men than in women. In Europe and Asia, high incidences of pharyngeal cancers, namely, oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal, have been found...
Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma (tumor growing in tissue other than bone).
All of these names may be grouped together and called Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.
Ewing sarcoma may be found in the bones of the legs, arms, chest, pelvis, spine, or skull. Ewing sarcoma also may be found in the soft tissue of the trunk, arms, legs, head and neck, abdominal cavity, or other areas.
Ewing tumors often occur in teenagers and young adults.
Possible signs of Ewing sarcoma include swelling and pain near the tumor.
These and other symptoms may be caused by Ewing sarcoma. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. Check with your child's doctor if you see any of these problems in your child:
Pain and/or swelling, usually in the arms, legs, chest, back, or pelvis (area between the hips).
A lump (which may feel soft and warm) in the arms, legs, chest, or pelvis.
Fever for no known reason.
A bone that breaks for no known reason.
Tests that examine the bone and soft tissue are used to diagnose and stage Ewing sarcoma.
The following tests and procedures may be used to diagnose or stage Ewing sarcoma:
Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the chest, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
PET scan (positron emission tomography scan): A procedure to find malignant tumor cells in the body. A small amount of radioactive glucose (sugar) is injected into a vein. The PET scanner rotates around the body and makes a picture of where glucose is being used in the body. Malignant tumor cells show up brighter in the picture because they are more active and take up more glucose than normal cells do. Sometimes a PET scan and a CT scan are done at the same time. If there is any cancer, this increases the chance that it will be found.
Bone scan: A procedure to check if there are rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, in the bone. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive material collects in the bones and is detected by a scanner.
Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: The removal of bone marrow, blood, and a small piece of bone by inserting a hollow needle into the hipbone. Samples are removed from both hipbones. A pathologist views the bone marrow, blood, and bone under a microscope to see if the cancer has spread.
X-ray: An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.
Complete blood count (CBC): A procedure in which a sample of blood is drawn and checked for the following:
The number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
The amount of hemoglobin (the protein that carries oxygen) in the red blood cells.
The portion of the blood sample made up of red blood cells.
Blood chemistry studies: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances, such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease in the organ or tissue that makes it.