Medulloblastoma occurs primarily in children, but it also occurs with some frequency in adults. Other embryonal tumors are pediatric conditions. (Refer to the Embryonal Tumors section in the Classification section of this summary for more information. Refer to the PDQ summary on Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment for more information.)
Detection of asymptomatic metastatic disease in prostate cancer is greatly affected by the staging tests performed. Radionuclide bone scans are currently the most widely used tests for metastases to the bone, which is the most common site of distant tumor spread. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is more sensitive than radionuclide bone scans but is impractical for evaluating the entire skeletal system. Some evidence suggests that serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels can predict the results...
Surgery plus craniospinal radiation therapy for good-risk patients.[2,3,4]
Treatment options under clinical evaluation:
Surgery plus craniospinal radiation therapy for poor-risk patients. Various chemotherapy programs are also being evaluated.[4,5]
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with adult medulloblastoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
Brandes AA, Ermani M, Amista P, et al.: The treatment of adults with medulloblastoma: a prospective study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 57 (3): 755-61, 2003.
Levin VA, Vestnys PS, Edwards MS, et al.: Improvement in survival produced by sequential therapies in the treatment of recurrent medulloblastoma. Cancer 51 (8): 1364-70, 1983.
Carrie C, Lasset C, Alapetite C, et al.: Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in adult patients with medulloblastoma. Retrospective study of 156 patients. Cancer 74 (8): 2352-60, 1994.
Brandes AA, Franceschi E, Tosoni A, et al.: Long-term results of a prospective study on the treatment of medulloblastoma in adults. Cancer 110 (9): 2035-41, 2007.
Allen JC, Bloom J, Ertel I, et al.: Brain tumors in children: current cooperative and institutional chemotherapy trials in newly diagnosed and recurrent disease. Semin Oncol 13 (1): 110-22, 1986.