Two types of nutrition support are commonly used.
If the patient cannot swallow, two types of nutrition support are commonly used:
- Enteral nutrition uses a tube inserted into the stomach or intestine.
- Parenteral nutrition uses an intravenous (IV) catheter inserted into a vein.
Each type of nutrition support has benefits and risks. (See the PDQ summary on Nutrition in Cancer Care for more information.)
An important decision for the patient to make is whether to have cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (trying to restart the heart and breathing when it stops). It is best if patients talk with their family, doctors, and caregivers about their wishes for CPR as early as possible (for example, when being admitted to the hospital or when active cancer treatment is stopped). A do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order is written by a doctor to tell other health professionals not to perform CPR at the moment of death, so that the natural process of dying occurs. If the patient wishes, he or she can ask the doctor to write a DNR order. The patient can ask that the DNR order be changed or removed at any time.
Ventilator use may keep the patient alive after normal breathing stops.
A ventilator is a machine that helps patients breathe. Sometimes, using a ventilator will not improve the patient's condition, but will keep the patient alive longer. If the goal of care is to help the patient live longer, a ventilator may be used, according to the patient's wishes. If ventilator support stops helping the patient or is no longer what the patient wants, the patient, family, and health care team may decide to turn the ventilator off.
Some patients may want to be allowed to die when breathing gets difficult or stops. It is important for the patient to tell family members and health care providers, before breathing becomes difficult, of his or her wishes about being kept alive with a ventilator.
Before a ventilator is turned off, family members will be given information about what to expect.
Family members will be given information about how the patient may respond when the ventilator is removed and about pain relief or sedation to keep the patient comfortable. Family members will be given time to contact other loved ones who wish to be there. Chaplains or social workers may be called to give help and support to the family.
The decision whether to sedate a patient at the end of life is a difficult one. Sedation may be considered for a patient's comfort or for a physical condition such as uncontrolled pain. Palliative sedation may be temporary. A patient's thoughts and feelings about end-of-life sedation may depend greatly on his or her own culture and beliefs. Some patients who become anxious facing the end of life may want to be sedated. Other patients may wish to have no procedures, including sedation, just before death.
It is important for the patient to tell family members and health care providers of his or her wishes about sedation at the end of life. When patients make their wishes about sedation known ahead of time, doctors and family members can be sure they are doing what the patient would want. Families may need support from the health care team and mental health professionals while palliative sedation is used.