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Children's Health

9 Childhood Illnesses: Get the Facts

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By Camille Peri
WebMD Feature

As a parent, you've probably handled enough ear infections, colds, and stomach bugs to feel like an expert. But here are nine other illnesses you should know about.

RSV

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an infection of the airways. It usually isn’t serious,  but if your child is under 2, or has a heart or lung disease or a weak immune system, it can inflame the lungs and cause pneumonia.

"It's the most common viral respiratory infection that causes hospitalization in young babies," says Kathryn M. Edwards, MD, director of the Vanderbilt Vaccine Research Program.

Symptoms:

There is no treatment for RSV, but talk with your doctor about ways to ease your child’s symptoms.

Fifth Disease

Another viral illness, fifth disease is common in kids ages 5 to 15.

"In most children, it's benign," says James Cherry, MD, a specialist in children's infectious diseases.

A child with sickle cell anemia or a weak immune system can become very ill from fifth disease. It can also be serious in pregnant women.

Symptoms:

  • Low fever
  • Cold symptoms (like runny nose)
  • Swollen joints

A few days later…

  • a bright red rash appears, usually on the face, then spreads down the body.

By the time the rash appears, the illness is no longer contagious, Cherry says.

It can take 1 to 3 weeks for the rash to go away. In some children, the rash may itch, and the joints may ache. Your doctor can recommend ways to ease these symptoms.

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

This contagious viral illness usually isn’t serious.

Children under age 5 are most likely to catch it, through coughs, sneezes, and fluid from blisters.

Symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Sore throat
  • Poor appetite

A few days later…

  • Painful sores may develop in the mouth.
  • Skin rash  

It usually clears up in 7 to 10 days without treatment.

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