Chronic Health Problems Soar in Kids
Asthma, Obesity, and ADHD Top the List
What's Causing It?
All three conditions -- asthma, obesity, and ADHD -- have been linked to genetic influences, Perrin says, yet genetic factors can't totally explain the rise in the problems.
He points also to social, family, and environmental changes, such as a rise in working parents with less time to nurture their children, more stress on parents, increased use of television and other media and computers, and decreased opportunities for physical activity.
Another factor that may play a role, the researchers say, is the rise in very low-birth-weight babies, who have been found to be at higher risk for obesity, ADHD, and perhaps asthma.
Dietary changes -- increases in calories and portion size, as well as the abundance of sugary beverages -- also affect the rise in obesity, he says.
As today's children and teens move into young adulthood, Perrin sees a huge impact on their need for health care as well as social services if they become disabled. "I think we are going to see a doubling or tripling of health care costs," he says.
"These are people who are going to have much less of a good quality of life and good future," he says. Young people who are obese have a higher risk of getting diabetes and cardiovascular disease, he tells WebMD, and children with severe asthma can become disabled even as teens.
ADHD, he adds, is probably in large part due to genetics but may have environmental factors playing a role.
In a editorial in the same issue, Jody W. Zylke, MD, a contributing editor to the journal, and Catherine D. DeAngelis, MD, MPH, the journal's editor-in-chief, note that pediatric chronic diseases are "stealing" childhood.
Complicating the issue, they say, is that researchers don't agree on a clear definition of a chronic health condition in childhood.
In another study in the same issue, researchers from the Netherlands reviewed 64 articles that defined chronic health conditions of children. They found a large range of definitions in use. As a result, the estimates of how many children are affected ranged from 0.22% to 44%.
Despite the bleak picture, the co-authors say there are a few bright spots, such as the success with childhood cancer survival (yet there has also been a rise in treatment-related complications). And research on childhood conditions is about to take off with the expected launching this year of the National Children's Study. It will evaluate 100,000 children from before birth until age 21 to focus on the effects of environmental factors on health and development.