COVID-19 Vaccines and Kids: What to Know

SInce adults have made up most of the large majority of cases of COVID-19, you may ask does my child really need one? In short, yes. In fact,the CDC has recommended that everyone 12 years and older should get a COVID-19 vaccination to protect against the coronavirus. While the original vaccines were developed for adults, clinical trials by most manufacturers are showing them safe in children.

Doctors can’t always tell which children are more likely to become seriously ill from COVID-19. A vaccine will lower their chances of serious complications. It’ll also help protect older adults around them who are high risk.

In addition, children under 18 make up about 21% of the U.S. population. If many of them get a vaccine, the chance of herd immunity goes up. That’s when a lot of people are immune to a specific disease. If enough people are resistant to the cause of a disease, such as a virus or bacteria, it has no one to infect.

Vaccine Trials for Children

After successful clinical trials the FDA granted emergency use authorization the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccines  for those age 12 and older and Moderna is seeking the same. The Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines are currently for those 18 and older.

Trials for all ages are ongoing and Pfizer plans to seek expanded authorization for those 2 years-old and older this fall.

Why Vaccines for Children Take Longer

Children weren’t a part of the original clinical trials because they’re generally not as vulnerable as adults. The majority of the deaths during the pandemic -- 92% -- have been people age 55 and older.

This doesn’t mean that children are immune to COVID-19. They simply have a lower chance of serious complications from the virus.

Another reason trials focused on adults first was speed. There are more levels of protection when children are involved in clinical trials. So it made sense to study an adult vaccine first to move quickly.

Scientists also need more time to research children’s vaccines because their immune systems change fast. This means that a child’s body might respond differently to a vaccine depending on their age. It’ll take longer to study these differences to make sure the vaccines are safe.


We don’t yet know if children can take a COVID-19 vaccine with another type of immunization. But the CDC recommends adults wait at least 2 weeks after COVID-19 vaccination before getting something else, if possible.

Here’s what you can do in the meantime to keep your child safe, especially if they’re in a high-risk group:

  • Make sure everyone in your family gets a flu vaccine.
  • Make sure all eligible adults who spend time with your child get a COVID-19 vaccine.
  • Continue to practice social distancing, wear masks, and wash your hands often.
WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Brunilda Nazario, MD on March 19, 2021



Cincinnati Children’s Hospital: “Coronavirus (COVID-19) Information | Vaccines: What You Need to Know.”

American Academy of Pediatrics: “Moderna testing COVID-19 vaccine in children under 12.”

Cleveland Clinic: “Why a COVID-19 Vaccine for Children May Take Longer.”

Rabia Agha, MD, director, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Maimonides Medical Center, New York City.

FDA: “COVID-19 Frequently Asked Questions.”

CDC: "COVID-19 Vaccines for Children and Teens," “Interim Clinical Considerations for Use of COVID-19 Vaccines Currently Authorized in the United States.”

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