Skip to content

    Children's Health

    Font Size
    A
    A
    A

    Pompe Disease

    Important
    It is possible that the main title of the report Pompe Disease is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.

    Synonyms

    • acid maltase deficiency (AMD)
    • acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) deficiency
    • glycogen storage disease type II

    Disorder Subdivisions

    • infantile onset Pompe disease
    • late onset Pompe disease

    General Discussion

    Summary
    Pompe disease is a rare multisystem genetic disorder that is characterized by absence or deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-glucosidase (GAA). This enzyme is required to breakdown (metabolize) the complex carbohydrate glycogen and convert it into the simple sugar glucose. Glycogen is a thick, sticky substance and failure to properly break it down results in massive accumulation of lysosomal glycogen in cells, particularly in cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle cells. Pompe disease is a single disease continuum with variable rates of disease progression and different ages of onset. The infantile form is characterized by severe muscle weakness and abnormally diminished muscle tone (hypotonia) without muscle wasting, and usually manifests within the first few months of life. Additional abnormalities may include enlargement of the heart (cardiomegaly), the liver (hepatomegaly), and/or the tongue (macroglossia). Without treatment, progressive cardiac failure usually causes life-threatening complications by the age of 12 to 18 months. Pompe disease can also present in childhood, adolescence or adulthood, collectively known as late-onset Pompe disease. The extent of organ involvement may vary among affected individuals; however, skeletal muscle weakness is usually present with minimal cardiac involvement. Initial symptoms of late-onset Pompe disease may be subtle and may go unrecognized for years. Pompe disease is caused by mutations of the GAA gene and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.

    Introduction
    Pompe disease belongs to a group of diseases known as the lysosomal storage disorders. Lysosomes are particles bound in membranes within cells that function as the primary digestive units of cells. Enzymes within the lysosomes break down or digest particular nutrients, such as complex molecules composed of a sugar attached to a protein (glycoproteins). There are more than 40 different lysosomal enzymes. Low levels or inactivity of the GAA lysosomal enzyme leads to the accumulation of glycogen in the lysosomes of various cells within the body with unwanted consequences. Pompe disease may also be classified as a glycogen storage disease, a group of metabolic disorders characterized by abnormalities involving the use and/or storage of glycogen.

    Resources

    CLIMB (Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases)
    Climb Building
    176 Nantwich Road
    Crewe, CW2 6BG
    United Kingdom
    Tel: 4408452412173
    Fax: 4408452412174
    Email: enquiries@climb.org.uk
    Internet: http://www.CLIMB.org.uk

    Association for Glycogen Storage Disease
    P.O. Box 896
    Durant, IA 52747
    USA
    Tel: (563)514-4022
    Fax: (563)514-4022
    Email: info@agsdus.org
    Internet: http://www.agsdus.org

    Vaincre Les Maladies Lysosomales
    2 Ter Avenue
    Massy, 91300
    France
    Tel: 0169754030
    Fax: 0160111583
    Email: accueil@vml-asso.org
    Internet: http://www.vml-asso.org

    Muscular Dystrophy Association
    3300 East Sunrise Drive
    Tucson, AZ 85718-3208
    USA
    Tel: (520)529-2000
    Fax: (520)529-5300
    Tel: (800)572-1717
    Email: mda@mdausa.org
    Internet: http://www.mda.org/

    NIH/National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive & Kidney Diseases
    Office of Communications & Public Liaison
    Bldg 31, Rm 9A06
    31 Center Drive, MSC 2560
    Bethesda, MD 20892-2560
    Tel: (301)496-3583
    Email: NDDIC@info.niddk.nih.gov
    Internet: http://www2.niddk.nih.gov/

    Acid Maltase Deficiency Association, Inc.
    P.O. Box 700248
    San Antonio, TX 78270-0248
    Tel: (210)494-6144
    Fax: (210)490-7161
    Email: tiffanylhouse@aol.com
    Internet: http://www.amda-pompe.org

    Association for Glycogen Storage Disease (UK) Ltd
    Old Hambledon Racecourse
    Sheardley Lane, Droxford
    Hampshire, SO32 3QY
    United Kingdom
    Tel: 03001232790
    Email: info@agsd.org.uk
    Internet: http://www.agsd.org.uk

    Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation
    PO Box 547
    Tenafly, NJ 07670
    USA
    Tel: (866)808-2873
    Fax: (201)227-7016
    Email: info@childrenscardiomyopathy.org
    Internet: http://www.childrenscardiomyopathy.org

    Belgian Association for Metabolic Diseases
    Alice Nahonlann 7
    Melsele, 9120
    Belgium
    Tel: 0498701503
    Fax: 037754839
    Email: info@boks.be
    Internet: http://www.boks.be/site/index.php/

    Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
    PO Box 8126
    Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
    Tel: (301)251-4925
    Fax: (301)251-4911
    Tel: (888)205-2311
    TDD: (888)205-3223
    Internet: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/

    Instituto de Errores Innatos del Metabolismo
    Carrera 7 No 40 - 62
    Bogota,
    Colombia
    Tel: 5713208320
    Email: abarrera@javeriana.edu.co
    Internet: http://www.javeriana.edu.co/ieim/programas_ieim.htm

    United Pompe Foundation
    5100 N. Sixth Street #119
    Fresno, CA 93710
    Tel: (559)227-1898
    Fax: (559)227-1898
    Email: david@unitedpompe.com
    Internet: http://www.unitedpompe.com

    Hide & Seek Foundation for Lysosomal Disease Research
    6475 East Pacific Coast Highway Suite 466
    Long Beach, CA 90803
    Tel: (877)621-1122
    Fax: (866)215-8850
    Email: info@hideandseek.org
    Internet: http://www.hideandseek.org

    Proyecto Pide un Deseo México, i.a.p.
    Altadena #59-501 col. Napoles
    delegacion Benito Juarez
    03810 Mexico D.F.
    Tel: 55 5543-2447
    Fax: 55-5543-5450
    Email: prayecto.pdeundese.mexico@gmail.com
    Internet: http://www.pideundeseo.org

    For a Complete Report:

    This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). A copy of the complete report can be downloaded free from the NORD website for registered users. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational therapies (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, go to www.rarediseases.org and click on Rare Disease Database under "Rare Disease Information".

    The information provided in this report is not intended for diagnostic purposes. It is provided for informational purposes only. NORD recommends that affected individuals seek the advice or counsel of their own personal physicians.

    It is possible that the title of this topic is not the name you selected. Please check the Synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and Disorder Subdivision(s) covered by this report

    This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD's resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about this disorder.

    For additional information and assistance about rare disorders, please contact the National Organization for Rare Disorders at P.O. Box 1968, Danbury, CT 06813-1968; phone (203) 744-0100; web site www.rarediseases.org or email orphan@rarediseases.org

    Last Updated: 4/1/2013
    Copyright 1987, 1990, 1991, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2013 National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

    WebMD Medical Reference from the National Organization for Rare Disorders

    Last Updated: May 28, 2015
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.

    Today on WebMD

    child with red rash on cheeks
    What’s that rash?
    plate of fruit and veggies
    How healthy is your child’s diet?
     
    smiling baby
    Treating diarrhea, fever and more.
    Middle school band practice
    Understanding your child’s changing body.
     

    worried kid
    fitArticle
    jennifer aniston
    Slideshow
     
    Measles virus
    Article
    sick child
    Slideshow
     

    babyapp
    New
    Child with adhd
    Slideshow
     
    rl with friends
    fitSlideshow
    Child Coughing or Sneezing into Elbow
    Article