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Lead Poisoning - References


  1. Committee on Environmental Health, American Academy of Pediatrics (2005, reaffirmed 2009). Lead exposure in children: Prevention, detection, and management. Pediatrics, 116: 1036–1046. Also available online:

  2. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2006). Screening for elevated blood lead levels in children and pregnant women. Available online:

Other Works Consulted

  • Binns HJ, et al. (2007). Interpreting and managing blood lead levels of less than 10 mcg/dL in children and reducing childhood exposure to lead: Recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. Pediatrics, 120(5): e1285–e1298.

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002). Managing elevated blood lead levels among young children: Recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. Available online:

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005). Preventing lead poisoning in young children. Available online:

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Lead in drinking water and human blood lead levels in the United States. MMWR, 61(Supplement): 1–9. Also available online:

  • Grandjean P (2008). Lead section of Health significance of metal exposures. In RB Wallace, ed., Wallace/Maxcy-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 15th ed., pp. 609–611. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • Henretig FM (2009). Lead section of Toxins. In WB Carey et al., eds., Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, 4th ed., pp. 319–321. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.

  • Long H, Nelson LS (2011). Metals and metalloids. In JE Tintinalli, ed., Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide, 7th ed., pp. 1308–1315. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • Markowitz M (2011). Lead poisoning. In RM Kliegman et al., eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed., pp. 2448–2453. Philadelphia: Saunders.

  • Mcguigan MA (2012). Chronic poisoning: Trace metals and others. In L Goldman, A Shafer, eds., Goldman's Cecil Medicine, 24th ed., pp. 88–95. Philadelphia: Saunders.

  • Olsen KR (2012). Poisoning. In SJ McPhee, MA Papadakis, eds., 2012 Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment, 51st ed., pp. 1518–1547. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.

  • Shannon MW (2007). Lead. In MW Shannon et al., eds., Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose, 4th ed., pp. 1129–1146. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.

  • U.S. Centers for Disease Control (2005). Blood lead levels—United States, 1999–2002. MMWR, 54(20): 513–516. Also available online:

  • Woolf AD, et al. (2007). Update on the clinical management of childhood lead poisoning. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 54(2): 271–294.

  • Woolfenden YB, et al. (2008). Household interventions for prevention of domestic lead exposure in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2).


WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

Last Updated: July 26, 2012
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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