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    Milestones for 4-Year-Olds - Topic Overview

    Children usually progress in a natural, predictable sequence from one developmental milestone to the next. But each child grows and gains skills at his or her own pace. Some children may be advanced in one area, such as language, but behind in another, such as sensory and motor development.

    Milestones usually are categorized into five major areas: physical growth, cognitive development, emotional and social development, language development, and sensory and motor development.

    Physical growth and development

    Most children by age 4:

    • Have gained about 4.4 lb (2 kg) and grown about 3 in. (8 cm) since their third birthday.

    To see the high and low percentiles for normal weight and growth, go to

    Thinking and reasoning (cognitive development)

    Most children by age 4:

    • Can say their first and last names.
    • Understand the concept of counting and may know some numbers.
    • Better understand concepts of time.
    • Can name some colors.
    • Understand the difference between things that are the same and things that are different.
    • Are aware of their own gender and can identify the gender of others.
    • Understand that events are connected, although their interpretation may not always be logical. For example, a child may understand the logic that glass may break if hit with a rock. But he or she may still throw the rock thinking that it won't break this time (magical thinking).
    • Know the difference between fantasy and reality. But they still play "pretend," which becomes increasingly inventive. They also may blur fantasy and reality when they are stressed or have extreme emotions. They may develop new fears as a result of their active imaginations.

    Emotional and social development

    Most children by age 4:

    • View themselves as whole people, with a body, mind, and feelings.
    • Are aware that they can be hurt physically, which sometimes causes them to be very sensitive about their bodies.
    • Are interested in new experiences.
    • Cooperate with other children and, with help, can negotiate solutions to conflicts.
    • Alternate between being demanding and cooperative.
    • Dress and undress themselves.
    • Pretend to be a mom or dad during play.
    • Are noticeably more independent.
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