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Premature Infant: Treating Underdeveloped Lungs - Topic Overview

Particularly when an infant is born before 36 weeks' gestation, the premature infant's lungs are immature, and the body has limited muscle strength and energy for breathing. So the premature infant may not get enough oxygen. This can cause serious medical complications. It is common at birth for a premature infant to need oxygen therapy, a ventilator, and/or medicine to help with oxygen absorption and breathing.

Infants whose lungs have been quickly matured with corticosteroid treatment before birth (antenatal corticosteroids, given by injection to the mother) have a lot fewer medical complications than those who are not treated.

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Infants with underdeveloped lungs often lack surfactant, a substance that coats the airways, preventing them from collapsing and sticking together. When premature lungs are treated with surfactant after birth, the infant's blood oxygen levels usually improve within minutes. Surfactant treatment reduces the risk and the severity of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants as well as the overall risk of death.1 Surfactant also helps treat RDS.

Unlike corticosteroid treatment before birth, giving corticosteroids to a baby after birth (postnatal) is losing favor in the medical community. Current research is focusing on how this medicine can be safely used to improve lung function without causing neurological deficits, gastrointestinal bleeding and damage, blood sugar problems, and high blood pressure.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

    Last Updated: March 22, 2013
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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