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Rubella (German Measles) - Topic Overview

What is rubella?

Rubella is a very contagious (easily spread) illness caused by the rubella virus. It is usually a mild illness. But in rare cases, it may cause more serious problems.

If you are pregnant and get infected with the rubella virus, your baby (fetus) could become infected too. This can cause birth defects, including serious defects known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). CRS can cause hearing loss, eye problems, heart problems, and other complications.

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Under the Affordable Care Act, many health insurance plans will provide free children’s preventive care services, including checkups, vaccinations and screening tests. Learn more.

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Rubella also is called German measles or 3-day measles.

What causes rubella?

The rubella virus most often is spread through droplets of fluid from the mouth, nose, or eyes of someone who has the infection. A person who has the infection can spread these droplets by coughing, sneezing, talking, or sharing food or drinks. You can get infected by touching something that has the droplets on it and then touching your eyes, nose, or mouth before washing your hands.

If you have rubella, you are most likely to spread it a few days before the rash starts until 5 to 7 days after the rash first appears. But you can spread the virus even if you don't have any symptoms.

If you've had rubella, it is very unlikely that you will get it again.

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms of rubella may include:

  • A mild fever.
  • Swollen glands (lymph nodes), especially behind the ear and at the back of the head.
  • A mild rash camera.gif that starts on the face and spreads to the neck, the chest, and the rest of the body.

Adults, especially women, also may have joint pain. Older children and teens also may have eye pain, a sore throat, and body aches. Young children may have only a rash.

Symptoms may not start until 14 to 21 days after you've been near someone who has the infection. Some people don't have symptoms.

How is rubella diagnosed?

A blood test can help your doctor find out if a recent infection you've had was caused by the rubella virus. The test also shows if you have been immunized against rubella or are immune to the virus.

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