A flat or raised red rash, usually on the arms and legs, which lasts from two to 39 days and may itch. The rash fades from the center of red areas toward the edges, giving it a lacy appearance. The rash can recur with exercise, warm baths, rubbing the skin, or emotional upset.
Not all children with fifth disease develop the rash. Conversely, parents of some children may become concerned if the rash lasts several weeks or fluctuates with environmental triggers like the ones mentioned above. Both are normal.
Most fetuses are unaffected when their mothers contract the virus, and it has not been proven to cause birth defects. However, if a fetus becomes infected, the virus can disrupt the fetus's ability to produce red blood cells, leading to a dangerous form of anemia, heart failure, and sometimes miscarriage or stillbirth. A woman who contracts the virus while pregnant has about a 10% chance of miscarriage.
Call Your Doctor About Fifth Disease if:
Your child has sickle cell anemia, any other chronic anemia, or an impaired immune system and has been exposed to fifth disease or is exhibiting symptoms
You are pregnant, you do not know whether you are immune to parvovirus B19 (or know that you are not immune), and you come into contact with anyone who has an infection with parvovirus B19
The rash becomes purple, painful, blistered, or lasts longer than five weeks.
SOURCES: American Academy of Pediatrics. 2003 Red Book Report on the Committee of Infectious Diseases (Amerian Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infections Diseases//Report of the Committee on Infections Diseases)