The first treatment of a middle ear infection focuses on relieving pain. The doctor will also assess your child for any risk of complications.
If your child's condition improves in the first couple of days, treating the symptoms at home may be all that is needed. For more information, see Home Treatment.
If your child isn't better after a couple of days of home treatment, call your doctor. He or she may prescribe antibiotics.
Follow-up exams with a doctor are important to check for persistent infection, fluid behind the eardrum (otitis media with effusion), or repeat infections. Even if your child seems well, he or she may need a follow-up visit in about 4 weeks, especially if your child is young.
Your doctor can give your child antibiotics, but ear infections often get better without them. Talk about this with your doctor. Whether you use antibiotics will depend on how old your child is and how bad the infection is. For more information, see Medications.
If your child has cochlear implants, your doctor will probably prescribe antibiotics, because serious complications of ear infections, including bacterial meningitis, are more common in children who have cochlear implants than in children who do not have cochlear implants.
Ear Infection: Should I Give My Child Antibiotics?
Repeat ear infections
If a child has repeat ear infections (three or more ear infections in a 6-month period or four in 1 year), you may want to consider treatment to prevent future infections.
One option that has been used a lot in the past is long-term oral antibiotic treatment. There is debate within the medical community about using antibiotics on a long-term basis to prevent ear infections. Many doctors don't want to prescribe long-term antibiotics, because they are not sure that they really work. Also, when antibiotics are used too often, bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics.
Having tubes put in the ears is another option for treating repeat ear infections.
Fluid buildup and hearing problems
Fluid behind the eardrum after an ear infection is normal. And in most children, the fluid clears up within 3 months without treatment. If your child has fluid buildup without infection, you may try watchful waiting.