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Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Slideshow: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatments

What Is Pinkeye?

Pinkeye -- also called conjunctivitis -- is redness and inflammation of the clear membranes covering the whites of the eyes and the membranes on the inner part of the eyelids. Pinkeye is most often caused by a virus or by a bacterial infection, although allergies, chemical agents, and underlying diseases can also play a role.

Is Pinkeye Contagious?

Viral and bacterial pinkeye are extremely contagious. It's easily spread through poor hand washing or by sharing an object (like a towel) with someone who has it. It can also spread through coughing and sneezing. Kids diagnosed with infectious pinkeye should stay out of school or day care for a short period of time. Allergic pinkeye (caused by seasonal pollens, animal dander, cosmetics, and perfumes) and chemical pinkeye (from chemicals or liquids, including bleach and furniture polish) are not contagious.

Symptom: Eye Redness

Redness of the eye is the typical, telltale symptom of pinkeye. Pinkeye is a common condition that is rarely serious and unlikely to cause long-term eye or vision damage if promptly detected and treated.

Symptom: Swollen, Red Eyelids

The symptoms of infectious pinkeye typically begin in one eye and involve the other eye within a few days. Symptoms of allergic pinkeye usually involve both eyes. Swelling of the eyelids is more common with bacterial and allergic pinkeye.

Symptom: Lots of Tearing

Viral and allergic pinkeye are known for causing more tear production than usual.

Symptom: Itchy or Burning Eyes

You would know it if you felt it -- that overwhelming itchy, burning feeling in the eyes, which is typical of pinkeye.

Symptom: Drainage from the Eyes

A clear, watery drainage is common with viral and allergic pinkeye. When the drainage is more greenish-yellow (and there's a lot of it), this is likely bacterial pinkeye.

Symptom: Crusty Eyelids

If you wake up with your eyes "stuck shut," this may be caused by the discharge that accumulates during sleep from pinkeye.

Symptom: Sensitivity to Light

Pinkeye can cause mild sensitivity to light. A person who has severe symptoms, such as changes in eyesight, severe light sensitivity, or severe pain may have an infection that has spread beyond the conjunctiva and should be examined by a doctor.

Symptom: 'Something in the Eye'

You may notice a bothersome feeling like something is stuck in your eye. Or, a child may describe the feeling as sand in the eye. 

Pinkeye Diagnosis

A doctor can often diagnose pinkeye just by its distinguishing signs and symptoms. However a slit lamp exam may be required. In some cases, a swab of the discharge from the eye is sent to a lab to determine the cause.

When Pinkeye Means Something More

Persistent pinkeye could be from a severe allergy or infection that needs treatment. Also, the eyelid could be irritated called blepharitis, or the cornea called dry eye.  Rarely, it is a sign of an illness in the body like rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus), or inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.  Pinkeye is also seen in Kawasaki disease - a rare disease associated with fever in infants and young children.

Treating Pinkeye

Bacterial pinkeye is treated with antibiotic eyedrops, ointment, or pills to clear the infection. Most viral pinkeye cases have no specific treatment -- you just have to let the virus run its course, which is usually four to seven days. Allergic pinkeye symptoms should improve once the allergen source is removed and the allergy itself is treated. Chemical pinkeye requires prompt washing of the affected eye(s) for five minutes and an immediate call to the doctor.


Easing Symptoms

To reduce pain and to remove the discharge of bacterial or viral pinkeye, use a cold or warm compress on the eyes. Make sure to use a different washcloth for each eye to prevent spreading any infection. And use clean washcloths each time. Clean the eye from drainage by wiping from the inside to the outside of the eye area. 

How Long Am I Contagious?

With bacterial pinkeye, you can usually return to work or school 24 hours after antibiotics have been started, as long as symptoms have improved. With viral pinkeye, you are contagious as long as the symptoms last. Check with your doctor to be certain.

Preventing Its Spread

If you or your child has infectious pinkeye, avoid touching the eye area, and wash your hands frequently, particularly after applying medications to the area. Never share towels or handkerchiefs, and throw away tissues after each use. Change linens and towels daily. Disinfect all surfaces, including countertops, sinks, and doorknobs. Throw away any makeup used while infected.

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Conjunctivitis (Pinkeye)

Conjunctivitis, also known as pinkeye, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva is the thin clear tissue that lies over the white part of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelid.

What Causes Pinkeye?

Pinkeye has a number of different causes, including:

  • Viruses
  • Bacteria (such as gonorrhea or chlamydia)
  • Irritants such as shampoos, dirt, smoke, and pool chlorine
  • Allergies, like dust, pollen, or a special type of allergy that affects some contact lens wearers

Pinkeye caused by some bacteria and viruses can spread easily from person to person, but is not a serious health risk if diagnosed promptly. Pinkeye in newborn babies, however, should be reported to a doctor immediately, as it could be a vision-threatening infection.


What Are the Symptoms of Pinkeye?

The symptoms of pinkeye differ based on the cause of the inflammation, but may include:

  • Redness in the white of the eye or inner eyelid
  • Increased amount of tears
  • Thick yellow discharge that crusts over the eyelashes, especially after sleep
  • Green or white discharge from the eye
  • Itchy eyes
  • Burning eyes
  • Blurred vision
  • Increased sensitivity to light

See your eye doctor if you have any of these symptoms of pinkeye. Your eye doctor will conduct an exam of your eyes and may use a cotton swab to take a sample of fluid from the eyelid to be analyzed in a lab. Bacteria or viruses that may have caused conjunctivitis, including those that can cause a sexually transmitted disease or STD, can then be identified and proper treatment prescribed.

How Is Pinkeye Treated?

The treatment for pinkeye depends on the cause.


  • Bacteria. Pinkeye caused by bacteria, including those related to STDs, is treated with antibiotics, in the form of eye drops, ointments, or pills. Eye drops or ointments may need to be applied to the inside of the eyelid three to four times a day for five to seven days. Pills may need to be taken for several days. The infection should improve within a week. Take or use the drugs as instructed by your doctor, even if the symptoms go away.
  • Viruses. This type of pinkeye often results from the viruses that cause a common cold. Just as a cold must run its course, so must this form of pinkeye, which usually lasts from four to seven days. Viral conjunctivitis can be highly contagious. Avoid contact with others and wash your hands frequently. If you wear contact lenses, you should throw away contacts worn while you have pinkeye and wear glasses. Same for makeup.
  • Irritants. For pinkeye caused by an irritating substance, use water to wash the substance from the eye for five minutes. Your eyes should begin to improve within four hours. If the conjunctivitis is caused by acid or alkaline material such as bleach, immediately rinse the eyes with lots of water and call your doctor immediately.
  • Allergies. Allergy-associated conjunctivitis should improve once the allergy is treated and the allergen removed. See your doctor if you have conjunctivitis that is linked to an allergy.


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Reviewed by Arefa Cassoobhoy, MD, MPH on April 17, 2014

Sources: Sources

This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information: Disclaimer

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