Exams and Tests
An ophthalmologist performs tests to measure intraocular pressure as well as to rule out early primary open-angle glaucoma or secondary causes of glaucoma. These tests are explained below.
- Your visual acuity, which refers to how well you can see an object, is initially assessed. Your ophthalmologist determines your visual acuity by having you read letters from across a room using an eye chart.
- The front of your eyes, including your cornea, anterior chamber, iris, and lens, are examined using a special microscope called a slit lamp.
Tonometry is a method used to measure the pressure inside the eye. Measurements are taken for both eyes on at least 2-3 occasions. Because intraocular pressure varies from hour to hour in any individual, measurements may be taken at different times of day (eg, morning and night). A difference in pressure between the 2 eyes of 3 mm Hg or more may suggest glaucoma. Early primary open-angle glaucoma is very likely if the intraocular pressure is steadily increasing.
- Each optic nerve is examined for any damage or abnormalities; this may require dilation of the pupils to ensure an adequate examination of the optic nerves. Fundus photographs, which are pictures of your optic disk (the front surface of your optic nerve), are taken for future reference and comparison.
- Gonioscopy is performed to check the drainage angle of your eye; to do so, a special contact lens is placed on the eye. This test is important to determine if the angles are open, narrowed, or closed and to rule out any other conditions that could cause elevated intraocular pressure.
- Visual field testing checks your peripheral (or side) vision, typically by using an automated visual field machine. This test is done to rule out any visual field defects due to glaucoma. Visual field testing may need to be repeated. If there is a low risk of glaucomatous damage, then the test may be performed only once a year. If there is a high risk of glaucomatous damage, then the test may be performed as frequently as every 2 months.
- Pachymetry (or corneal thickness) is checked by an ultrasound probe to determine the accuracy of your intraocular pressure readings. A thinner cornea can give falsely low pressure readings, whereas a thick cornea can give falsely high pressure readings.
Ocular Hypertension Treatment Self-Care at Home
If your ophthalmologist prescribes medicines (see Medical Treatment and Medications) to help in lowering the pressure inside your eye, properly applying the medication and complying with your doctor’s instructions are very important. Not doing so could result in a further increase in intraocular pressure that can lead to optic nerve damage and permanent vision loss (ie, glaucoma).
The goal of medical treatment is to reduce the pressure before it causes glaucomatous loss of vision. Medical treatment is always initiated for those people who are believed to be at the greatest risk for developing glaucoma (see When To Seek Medical Care) and for those with signs of optic nerve damage.