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How Widespread Is Doping?

Some say the performance-enhancing drug use is widespread throughout professional sports and elite athletic competitions. The recent allegations in the ongoing BALCO scandal (involving charges against four of America's most-beloved track-and-field stars) are just the tip of the iceberg, Yesalis says.

"This canard that there are only a few bad apples in the barrel is a subterfuge perpetrated by sports organizations. I've always argued that in many sports there are only a few good apples, and that the majority of athletes do drugs," he says. "Doping in sport is as big a secret as the army Jeep is a secret weapon. Anybody in sports knows about it. It has been epidemic since the last quarter of the 19th century. It is not debatable, it is a fact: Drug use cuts across all sports."

Others maintain that it's a relatively small number cheaters who give sports a bad name.

"Our view on that is the vast majority of athletes are clean," Khadem says. "It would be very discouraging to think this is systematic and everyone is doing it. It has always been there, it may always have been there. But the more people realize this is not right, the more I think people will be inclined to fight it."

Yesalis says athletes take dope because fans are addicted to ever-bigger thrills.

"The frustration is this is not going to change because fans don't care," he says. "I think what people are looking for is bigger-than-life people doing bigger-than-life things. Performance-enhancing drugs facilitate that. And that has made these sports and their federations multimillion-dollar operations."

Roberts, however, says athletes and sports associations must take responsibility.

"I have a hard time blaming the public. A lot of the public really doesn't understand how much drug use there is," he says. "It's like fighting in hockey. The NHL thinks they need fighting to draw the fans. But it is already a good, clean, fast sport with a lot of excitement. If you assume you need fighting, and don't change the rules to make fighting disappear, is the public to blame?"

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