Is Organic Food Better for You?
Here's how to decide if it's worth the higher price.
Is Organic Food Safer? continued...
Reganold points to a large-scale study done by the Consumers
Union. Researchers looked at data from more than 94,000 food samples and 20
different crops. They found that organically grown crops consistently had about
one-third as many pesticide residues as the conventionally grown versions.
Organic foods also were far less likely to contain residues of more than one
Even so, the amount of man-made pesticide residues found in
conventional foods is still well below the level that the Environmental
Protection Agency has deemed unsafe. The real issue is whether these small
doses, over years and decades, might add up to an increased health risk down
"Is it going to make a difference? I don't know," says
Reganold. "But it's something to think about, and we're the guinea
Man-made pesticides aren't the only threats to food safety.
There is also the question of natural toxins produced by the plants themselves.
In this arena, conventional foods may actually have the advantage.
Because organic production steers clear of synthetic
insecticides and herbicides, organic crops usually contend with more pests and
weeds than conventional crops. This means the organic plants may produce more
"Plants can't get up and walk away. If they're being
attacked, they've got to sit there and take it. So they may resort to their own
chemical warfare," explains Carl Winter, director of the FoodSafe program
and an extension food toxicologist at the University of California, Davis.
These natural pesticides could be just as harmful to people --
or even more so -- than the synthetic pesticides used in conventional
agriculture. One familiar example is solanine, a substance produced by potatoes
as they turn green, which can make you ill if you ingest too much of it.
Another safety concern that has been raised about organic food
is the issue of manure fertilizers. Some critics fear that using manure to
fertilize organic crops might increase the risk of contamination by dangerous
microbes like E. coli.
"The organic farmers talk about the soil being more alive
on organic farms than conventional farms. That life isn't just insects and
worms; it's loaded with bacteria," says Klurfeld.
But organic production standards do include strict rules on the
composting and application of manure. And there's little evidence that organic
food has bacterial contamination more often than conventional food.
"The organic system is the only one with agricultural
standards that prohibit the use of raw manure within a certain time frame
between harvests of crops for human consumption," says the Organic Trade
Association's DiMatteo. She adds that bacterial contamination usually happens
because of improper handling after the food has left the farm, and conventional
food is just as likely to be affected.
Whether the issue is bad bacteria or pesticide residues,
experts agree that the best way to safeguard yourself is to thoroughly rinse
all fruits and vegetables under running water. You should even wash
items with inedible skins, like melons and citrus fruits, because cutting the
rind with a knife can bring contaminants to the inside.