Partially Hydrogenated Oils: Source of Trans Fats
Foods can call themselves "trans-fat free" even if they contain up to half a gram of trans fats per serving. Look on the ingredients list. If a food contains partially hydrogenated oils, it contains trans fats.
"If that's an item you only eat now and then, you don't need to worry," says Rosenbloom. "But if it's something you eat every day, it's worth looking for a brand that doesn't have partially hydrogenated oils." Be sure to look for balance. It doesn't help your health to choose foods loaded with saturated fat in order to avoid a tiny amount of trans fat. The American Heart Association recommends choosing vegetable oils and margarines with liquid vegetable oil as the first ingredient and no more than 2 grams of saturated fat per tablespoon, such as tub margarines, canola, corn, safflower, soybean, sunflower, and olive oils.
Artificial Sweeteners, as in Sucralose, Saccharin, Aspartame, Acesulfame
In moderation, these ingredients can cut down on calories in foods like yogurt and beverages. But the Center for Science in the Public Interest warns that some artificial sweeteners can be dangerous in large quantities. Many nutritionists say it's best to consume artificial sweeteners in moderation.
"If you drink six cans of sugar-free soda a day, it might be wise to switch to sparkling water flavored with lemon and lime, for example," says Hark.
Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Nitrate in Food
Used as a preservative in meats, these chemicals may pose a cancer risk, although the evidence remains controversial. One recent study raised fears that nitrites and nitrates could interact with medications to damage DNA and increase the risk of cancer. The Center for Science in the Public Interest recommends limiting the amount you consume by choosing nitrite-free products when possible.
Artificial Colorings in Food
These additives don't add nutrient value, and some research suggests that some colorings may pose health dangers, according to the Center for Science in the Public Interest. The risk is admittedly small, however, and the evidence often inconclusive.
Artificial colorings are often found in cereals, candies, sodas, and snack foods, especially those marketed to children. They will be noted on the ingredients list by their color name, such as Yellow 5, Yellow 6, Red 40, Red 3, Blue 1, Blue 2, Green 3, and Orange B.