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Digestive Diseases and Hepatitis

Hepatitis is a disease that causes inflammation of the liver. It can be either acute (lasting less than six months) or chronic (lasting more than six months).

Several viruses are known to cause hepatitis. Common forms of viral hepatitis include Hepatitis A, B, and C:

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Understanding Hepatitis -- Symptoms

Many people with hepatitis go undiagnosed, because the disease is mistaken for the flu or because there are no symptoms at all. The most common symptoms of hepatitis are: Loss of appetite Fatigue Mild fever Muscle or joint aches Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Less common symptoms include: Dark urine Light-colored stools Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes) Generalized itching Altered mental state, stupor, or coma Internal bleeding...

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  • Hepatitis A: Hepatitis A is a virus that causes liver disease. It most commonly comes from contaminated food or water. This form of hepatitis never leads to a chronic infection and usually has no complications. The liver usually heals from hepatitis A within two months. However, occasional deaths from hepatitis A have occurred due to massive liver infection. Hepatitis A can be prevented by vaccination.
  • Hepatitis B: This form of hepatitis causes liver damage. Most people recover from the virus within six months, but sometimes the virus will cause a lifelong, chronic infection, possibly resulting in serious liver damage. Once infected, a person can spread the virus even if he or she does not feel sick. Hepatitis B can be prevented by vaccination.
  • Hepatitis C: One of the most common causes of liver disease in the U.S., Hepatitis C is the No. 1 reason for liver transplant. At least 80% of patients with hepatitis C develop a chronic liver infection. Approximately 2.7 million people in the U.S. are chronically infected with hepatitis C, according to the CDC. It often does not show any symptoms. No vaccine is yet available to prevent hepatitis C.

Viral hepatitis is often preventable. However, it is still considered a serious health risk because it can:

  • Destroy liver tissue.
  • Spread from person to person.
  • Weaken the body's immune system.
  • Cause the liver to fail.
  • Cause liver cancer (hepatitis B and C).
  • Cause death.

 

How Do You Get Hepatitis?

You are at a higher risk of developing hepatitis if you:

  • Share needles to take drugs.
  • Practice unprotected oral, vaginal, or anal sex.
  • Have many sex partners.
  • Drink a lot of alcohol.
  • Have poor nutrition.
  • Work in a hospital.
  • Work in a nursing home.
  • Receive long-term kidney dialysis.
  • Travel to areas with poor sanitation.

 

How Does Someone Get or Spread Hepatitis?

The answer to that question depends on the form of hepatitis.

Hepatitis A

A person can get hepatitis A from eating food or drinking water carrying the virus. Infected food is usually a problem in developing nations where poor sanitation is common. However it is also seen in the U.S. with food that has been contaminated.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B may be transmitted by:

  • Having sex with an infected person.
  • Sharing dirty needles.
  • Being in direct contact with infected blood.
  • Getting needle stick injuries.
  • Mother to unborn child.
  • Being in contact with an infected person's body fluids.

Hepatitis C

A person can get hepatitis C from:

  • Sharing dirty needles.
  • Being in direct contact with infected blood.
  • Getting needle stick injuries.
  • Having sex with an infected person (less common).

Blood products are currently tested for hepatitis B and C, so it's unlikely that a person will get hepatitis from receiving blood products. However, blood transfusions or organ transplants before 1992 may have not been tested for hepatitis C. If you received a transfusion of blood products before this date, you may want to get tested for hepatitis C.

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