Frequently Asked Questions About Infertility
How do doctors treat infertility?
Infertility can be treated with medicine, surgery, artificial insemination,
or assisted reproductive technology. Many times these treatments are combined.
About two-thirds of couples who are treated for infertility are able to have a
baby. In most cases infertility is treated with drugs or surgery.
Doctors recommend specific treatments for infertility based on:
- Test results
- How long the couple has been trying to get pregnant
- The age of both the man and woman
- The overall health of the partners
- Preference of the partners
Doctors often treat infertility in men in the following ways:
- Sexual problems: If the man is impotent or has problems with
premature ejaculation, doctors can help him address these issues. Behavioral
therapy and/or medicines can be used in these cases.
- Too few sperm: If the man produces too few sperm, sometimes
surgery can correct this problem. In other cases, doctors can surgically remove
sperm from the male reproductive tract. Antibiotics can also be used to clear
up infections affecting sperm count.
Various fertility medicines are often used to treat women with ovulation
problems. It is important to talk with your doctor about the pros and cons of
these medicines. You should understand the risks, benefits, and side
Doctors also use surgery to treat some causes of infertility. Problems with
a woman's ovaries, fallopian tubes, or uterus can sometimes be corrected with
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is another type of treatment for
infertility.IUI is known by most people as artificial insemination. In this
procedure, the woman is injected with specially prepared sperm. Sometimes the
woman is also treated with medicines that stimulate ovulation before IUI.
IUI is often used to treat:
- Mild male factor infertility
- Women who have problems with their cervical mucus
- Couples with unexplained infertility
What medicines are used to treat infertility in women?
Some common medicines used to treat infertility in women include:
- Clomiphene citrate (Clomid):This medicine causes ovulation by acting on the
pituitary gland. It is often used in women who have polycystic ovarian syndrome
(PCOS) or other problems with ovulation. This medicine is taken by mouth.
- Human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG (Repronex, Pergonal): This medicine is
often used for women who don't ovulate due to problems with their pituitary
gland. hMG acts directly on the ovaries to stimulate ovulation. It is an
- Follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH (Gonal-F, Follistim): FSH works much
like hMG. It causes the ovaries to begin the process of ovulation. These
medicines are usually injected.
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) analog: These medicines are often
used for women who don't ovulate regularly each month. Women who ovulate before
the egg is ready can also use these medicines. Gn-RH analogs act on the
pituitary gland to change when the body ovulates. These medicines are usually
injected or given with a nasal spray.
- Metformin (Glucophage):Doctors use this medicine for women who have insulin
resistance and/or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). This drug helps lower the
high levels of male hormones in women with these conditions. This helps the
body to ovulate. Sometimes clomiphene citrate or FSH is combined with
metformin. This medicine is usually taken by mouth.
- Bromocriptine (Parlodel): This medicine is used for women with ovulation
problems due to high levels of prolactin. Prolactin is a hormone that causes
Many fertility drugs increase a woman's chance of having twins, triplets, or
other multiples. Women who are pregnant with multiple fetuses have more
problems during pregnancy. Multiple fetuses have a high risk of being born too
early (prematurely). Premature babies are at a higher risk of health and