For anyone who endures frequent or severe migraines, preventing these painful headaches is a top concern. Experts don't know exactly what causes migraines. But they have been able to identify medications to help prevent them.
People with frequent or severe migraine attacks can sometimes help prevent migraines if they:
Migraines are a type of headache that cause severe, throbbing pain, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light (photophobia) or sound (phonophobia). Migraine headaches generally last between four and 72 hours. Many people experience certain symptoms prior to the onset of the head pain. Symptoms that precede and herald an upcoming headache are referred to as an "aura," and usually last under an hour.
Symptoms of an aura include:
Changes in your vision (even brief blindness)
This treatment approach is helpful for people with frequent migraines. Medications can reduce how often migraines occur by half or more.
You may want to consider preventive medications if:
Acute treatment medications don't help or you have bothersome side effects from them.
You have frequent migraines (more than one a week).
The latest guidelines say these drugs are effective for preventing migraines:
Antiepileptic drugs. Certain antiseizure drugs are also effective for preventing migraines. These drugs may work by calming the neurons in the brain. Neuron "hyperexcitability" plays a role in migraine and epilepsy. Up to 20% of people with epilepsy also have migraine.
Beta-blockers. These drugs are commonly used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease. It's not clear how they help prevent migraines. But improving blood flow may play a role. Some beta-blockers that are effective for migraine prevention include:
Antidepressants. These medications affect the level of the brain chemical serotonin. Moderate evidence shows Elavil and Effexor are effective for preventing migraines. Other antidepressants may help as well.
Triptans for menstrual-related migraines. Triptans are commonly used for acute migraine treatment. But one triptan -- Frova -- is also helpful for preventing menstrual-related migraines. It affects serotonin levels and may also relieve pain in other ways. Several other triptans are being studied and may possibly be effective in preventing menstrual-related migraines.
Botox. Botox is a type of toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It weakens or paralyzes muscles. Botox is often used to treat wrinkles. But it was also found to help some people with chronic migraines. The FDA approved Botox for the preventive treatment of chronic migraines in 2010. It is used for people who have long-term migraine headaches at least 15 days per month, with the headache lasting four hours daily or longer. It is thought that Botox inhibits the release of certain chemicals involved in the transmission of pain signals.