People with multiple sclerosis, or MS, often have trouble swallowing, a problem called dysphagia. It can also lead to speech problems. It happens when the disease damages the nerves in the brain and spinal cord that make these tasks happen.
For some people, these problems are mild. Others have a harder time dealing with severe symptoms. But treatments and techniques can help you improve your speech and make swallowing easier.
Most of the nerves in your body are covered with a protective layer called myelin. It’s a lot like the insulation on electric wires. It helps messages from your brain move quickly and smoothly through your body, like electricity flows from a power source.
Demyelinating disorders damage myelin. When this happens, scar tissue forms in its place. Brain signals can’t move across scar tissue as quickly, so your nerves don’t work as well as they should. As a result, you might have trouble talking,...
Get a lot of lung infections, like pneumonia, that you can’t explain
When you can’t swallow properly, you might inhale food or liquids into your windpipe instead of getting them down your esophagus and into your stomach. Once in the lungs, they can cause pneumonia or abscesses. You could also be at risk for malnutrition or dehydration because your food and water aren’t getting to your stomach.
Symptoms of Speech Problems
The kinds of speech problems MS causes can vary depending on which part of the brain is damaged. Someone with the disease might have mild trouble with words or severe problems that make it hard for them to speak and be understood. A problem that’s subtle in the beginning might get worse over time.
People with MS usually have a few distinctive language problems:
“Scanning" speech, when a person’s normal speech pattern is disrupted with long pauses between words or syllables
Slurring words. It usually happens because of weak tongue, lip, and mouth muscles.
Trouble changing tone of voice
Getting a Diagnosis
Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and do a physical exam, paying attention to how well your tongue and other muscles in your mouth and throat work.
In some cases, your doctor may recommend that you get a test called a modified barium swallow. You’ll drink a special liquid that coats your mouth, throat, and esophagus, and your doctor will give you an X-ray. The fluid makes your insides stand out on the image. The test helps your doctor pinpoint where and why you’re having trouble swallowing.
Your doctor might suggest that you see a speech therapist or a speech-language pathologist. She can figure out which part of your speech is affected and study your breathing control and way you move your lips, tongue, and other parts of your mouth.