Oral Health Problems in Children
Tips to Help Your Child Stop Thumb Sucking
First, remember that thumb sucking is normal and should not be a concern unless the habit continues as the permanent teeth begin to emerge.
Children must make the decision on their own to stop sucking their thumb or fingers before the habit will cease. To help toward this goal, parents and family members can offer encouragement and positive reinforcement. Because thumb sucking is a security mechanism, negative reinforcement (such as scolding, nagging, or punishments) are generally ineffective; they make children defensive and drive them back to the habit. Instead, give praise or rewards for time successfully avoiding the habit. Gradually increase the time needed without sucking to achieve the reward. The younger the child, the more frequent the rewards will need to be given. For children who want to stop, cover the finger or thumb with a band-aid as a reminder. Take the thumb or finger out of the mouth after your child falls asleep.
To help older children break the habit, you should try to determine why your child is doing it: Find out what stresses your child faces and try to correct the situation. Once the problem is gone, your child often finds it is easier to give up sucking. If this doesn't work, there are dental appliances your child can wear in the mouth to prevent sucking. These appliances are cemented to the upper teeth, sit on the roof of the mouth, and make thumb sucking harder and less pleasurable.
Tongue thrusting is the habit of sealing the mouth for swallowing by thrusting the top of the tongue forward against the lips.
Just like thumb sucking, tongue thrusting exerts pressure against the front teeth, pushing them out of alignment, which causes them to protrude, creating an overbite, and possibly interfering with proper speech development.
If you notice symptoms of tongue thrusting, consult a speech pathologist. This person can develop a treatment plan that helps your child to increase the strength of the chewing muscles and develop a new swallowing pattern.
Lip sucking involves repeatedly holding the lower lip beneath the upper front teeth. Sucking of the lower lip may occur by itself or in combination with thumb sucking. This practice results in an overbite and the same kinds of problems as with thumb sucking and tongue thrusting. Stopping the habit involves the same steps as for stopping thumb sucking.
Early Tooth Loss
Premature loss of a child's baby teeth typically occurs from tooth decay, injury, or lack of jaw space.
If teeth are lost before the permanent teeth come in, the nearby teeth can tip or shift. When a permanent tooth tries to emerge into its space, there may not be enough room. The new tooth may emerge tilted. Crooked or misaligned teeth can cause a range of problems, from interfering with proper chewing to causing temporomandibular joint problems.
If your child loses a tooth prematurely, your dentist may recommend a space maintainer. A space maintainer is a plastic or metal device that holds open the space left by the missing tooth. Your dentist will remove it once the permanent teeth begin to erupt.