Do You Need Oral Surgery?

Your tooth has been bothering you for weeks. Now the pain has become unbearable. Maybe your jaw has been sore lately. Or you lost a tooth recently.

Is a trip to the dentist enough? What if you need to see an oral and maxillofacial surgeon? How do you know?

Talk to Your Dentist First

If you have problems with your teeth, gums, or jaws, go see your dentist, even if the pain is in the area around your mouth or face.

If it’s an emergency and a dentist is not available, head to an urgent care clinic rather than the ER. It's best, though, to try to avoid both if possible. They will only administer medication for the symptoms and tell you to see a dentist. They may also charge 3 to 4 times what it may cost to solve the problem. Your dentist can handle most oral problems. If they think you need an oral surgeon, they’ll recommend one.

The Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon

If your dentist recommends maxillofacial surgery, they are talking about a specialty of dentistry that relates to your face and jaws. It’s a surgery that treats disease and injuries of the areas around your mouth.

Oral and maxillofacial surgeons must complete extra training and education beyond what is normal for a dentist. Some get a medical degree (an MD) along with their oral surgery diplomas. They put in at least 4 years of training in a hospital-based surgical program alongside medical residents in many different specialties, including anesthesia. That includes various types of IV sedation, including "twilight sleep" and general anesthesia, where you're unconscious and can't feel any pain. It can also include local anesthesia, where only a small area of your body is numbed for your procedure.

An oral surgeon can help you out of several situations.

Impacted teeth: This mostly happens with wisdom teeth. But it can happen in other places in your mouth, too.

When the teeth come through the gums for the first time, it might be crowded, so they either don’t come out at all or don’t come out completely. This can cause sore gums and infections.


Your dentist or surgeon might recommend you get your wisdom teeth pulled, even before they present any problems.

Jaw-joint issues: The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) connects your jaw to your skull. It’s that little “hinge” right in front of the ears. It can cause problems like pain in your jaw, jaw-popping, stiffness, and headaches.

Oral devices, pain medication, and ice packs can help. But people with recurring problems may need oral surgery.

Overbite/underbite: If your jaw or teeth aren’t aligned properly, your dentist may recommend orthognathic surgery. It’s an option for people with excessive overbites or underbites, trouble chewing or swallowing, certain birth defects, or sleep apnea.

Often, an orthodontist can correct your teeth if they don’t line up. But if it’s caused by your jaw, some time with an oral surgeon might be necessary.

Implants: You can replace a missing tooth with a dental implant. The surgeon imbeds a titanium implant into your jaw, then your dentist attaches a crown.


Sleep and breathing issues: This covers things like snoring and sleep apnea, a condition that causes you to stop breathing for brief periods during sleep. A doctor with special training may recommend a CPAP machine or other appliance that can open your airway. They may also want you to have surgery, and you’d go to an oral surgeon.

The type of surgery you’d have would depend on what’s blocking your breathing. It could be that your airway just needs to be made bigger or it could mean that a specific part of your mouth or nasal passages needs to be adjusted.

You could have a procedure in a doctor’s office and go home the same day. If the surgery you need is a bit more involved, you may have to spend a few days in the hospital and maybe have your jaw wired shut.

Cancer treatment: Oral surgeons also treat cancers, not just of the mouth, but also of the head and neck, like of the salivary glands, sinuses, throat, larynx, and lips.


Oral surgeons can also help with:

  • Nerve repair
  • Cleft lips and cleft palate surgery
  • Removal of lesions on the face or inside the mouth

If you have problems with your teeth or gums, talk with your dentist. They might be able to fix it. If not, an oral surgeon can give you the relief you’re searching for.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Alfred D. Wyatt Jr., DMD on October 22, 2020



American Dental Association: “Dentists: Doctors of Oral Health.”

Mount Sinai Hospital: “Impacted Tooth.”

Mayo Clinic: “TMJ Disorders.”

American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

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