Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is the name given to several problems with jaw
movement and pain in and around the
jaw joints .
You may also hear TMD called TMJ or
The jaw joints, or
temporomandibular (TM) joints, connect the lower
jawbone (mandible) to the skull. These flexible joints are used more than any
other joint in the body. They allow the jaw to open and close for talking,
chewing, swallowing, yawning, and other movements.
have problems with jaw movement and pain in and around the jaw joints at some
time during their lives. These joint and muscle problems are complex. So
finding the right diagnosis and treatment of TMD may take some
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) can affect the
jaw and jaw joint as well as muscles in the face, shoulder, head, and neck .
Common symptoms include joint pain, muscle pain, headaches, joint sounds,
trouble with fully opening the mouth, and jaw locking.
cases, symptoms of TMD are mild and don't last long. They tend to come and go without
getting worse and usually go away without a doctor's care.
people who have TMD develop long-lasting (chronic) symptoms. Chronic pain or difficulty moving the jaw may affect talking, eating, and
swallowing. This may affect a person's overall sense of well-being.
The most common cause of
TMD symptoms is muscle tension, often triggered by stress. When you are
under stress, you may be in the habit of clenching or grinding your teeth.
These habits can tire the jaw muscles and lead to a cycle of muscle spasm,
tissue damage, pain, sore muscles, and more spasm.
can start when there is a problem with the joint itself, such as:
- An injury to the joint or the tissues around
- Problems with how the joint is shaped.
diseases, such as
- The articular disc
that cushions the joint shifts out of place.
Although there is
no one way to identify a TMD, your doctor can most likely check your
condition with a physical exam and by asking questions about your past health.
In some cases, an
CT scan, or
MRI is also used to check for bone or soft tissue
problems related to symptoms of TMD.