Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Ovarian Epithelial Cancer
In the absence of extra-abdominal metastatic disease, definitive staging of ovarian cancer requires surgery. The role of surgery in patients with stage IV disease and extra-abdominal disease is yet to be established. If disease appears to be limited to the ovaries or pelvis, it is essential at laparotomy to examine and biopsy or to obtain cytologic brushings of the diaphragm, both paracolic gutters, the pelvic peritoneum, para-aortic and pelvic nodes, and infracolic omentum, and to obtain peritoneal washings.The serum CA 125 level is valuable in the follow-up and restaging of patients who have elevated CA 125 levels at the time of diagnosis.[2,3,4] While an elevated CA 125 level indicates a high probability of epithelial ovarian cancer, a negative CA 125 level cannot be used to exclude the presence of residual disease. CA 125 levels can also be elevated in other malignancies and benign gynecologic problems such as endometriosis, and CA 125 levels should be used with a
Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of ovarian epithelial cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus
Ovarian Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Evidence of Benefit
PathogenesisThe pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma remains unclear. Several theories have been proposed to explain the epidemiology of ovarian cancer including the theory of incessant ovulation,[1,2] gonadotropin stimulation, excess androgenic stimulation, and inflammation. Associated risk factors for ovarian cancer support some or all of these hypotheses. Oral contraceptive use is consistently associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer and may operate through preventing the trauma from repeated ovulation by lowering exposure to gonadotropins. No one theory, however, explains all the associated risk factors.Protective Factors Factors associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer include: (1) using oral contraceptives, (2) having and breastfeeding children, (3) having a bilateral tubal ligation or hysterectomy, and (4) having a prophylactic oophorectomy.Oral contraceptives Multiple studies have consistently demonstrated a decrease in
Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors
DysgerminomasStandard treatment options: Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant radiation therapy or chemotherapy.Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy.For patients with stage II dysgerminoma, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy are usually performed. For the younger patient who wants to preserve fertility, a unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy may be considered standard therapy, depending on the age of the patient, and adjuvant chemotherapy should be given. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Sexuality and Reproductive Issues for more information on fertility.)These patients should receive adjuvant treatment. Options include radiation therapy or chemotherapy. A disadvantage of the former is loss of fertility resulting from ovarian failure. Experience with adjuvant chemotherapy is limited, but considering the effectiveness of chemotherapy in tumors other than dysgerminoma and its effectiveness in
Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Ovarian Epithelial Cancer
Related Summaries Note: Other PDQ summaries containing information related to ovarian epithelial cancer include the following: Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer Ovarian Cancer Screening Ovarian Cancer Prevention Unusual Cancers of Childhood Statistics Note: Estimated new cases and deaths from ovarian cancer in the United States in 2010:[ 1 ] New cases: 21,880. Deaths: 13,850. Note: Some ...
Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors
A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some stages, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Early Stage Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors (Stage I and II)Surgery is the standard treatment for early stage ovarian low malignant potential tumor. The type of surgery usually depends on whether a woman plans to have children.For women who plan to have children, surgery is either:unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; orpartial oophorectomy.To prevent recurrence of disease, most doctors recommend surgery to remove the remaining ovarian tissue when a woman no longer plans to have children.For women who do not plan to have children, treatment may be hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I borderline ovarian surface epithelial-stromal
Ovarian Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary
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Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage III and Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Treatment
Treatment options for patients with all stages of ovarian epithelial cancer have consisted of surgery followed by chemotherapy.SurgeryPatients diagnosed with stage III and stage IV disease are treated with surgery and chemotherapy; however, the outcome is generally less favorable for patients with stage IV disease. The role of surgery for patients with stage IV disease is unclear, but in most instances, the bulk of the disease is intra-abdominal, and surgical procedures similar to those used in the management of patients with stage III disease are applied. The options for intraperitoneal (IP) regimens are also less likely to apply both practically (as far as inserting an IP catheter at the outset) and theoretically (aimed at destroying microscopic disease in the peritoneal cavity) in patients with stage IV disease. Surgery has been used as a therapeutic modality and also to adequately stage the disease. Surgery should include total abdominal
Ovarian Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (04 / 12 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.