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Ovarian Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Ovarian Cancer

  1. Ovarian Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence

    BackgroundIncidence and mortalityOvarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States and has the highest mortality rate of all gynecologic cancers.[1] It is estimated that 22,240 new cases of ovarian cancer will be diagnosed in the United States in 2013, and 14,030 women will die of this disease.[1] The median age at diagnosis is 63 years.[2] The prognosis for survival from ovarian cancer largely depends on the extent of disease at diagnosis, which is usually advanced, with only about 15% of women presenting with localized disease at diagnosis.[1,2]From 2005 to 2009, incidence rates decreased by 0.9% per year, and mortality rates decreased by 2.0% per year.[1]Ovarian cancer is rare; the lifetime risk of being diagnosed with ovarian cancer is 1.38%.[2]Types of Ovarian CancerThe term ovarian cancer encompasses a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of ovarian origin that may arise from germ cells, stromal tissue, or

  2. Ovarian Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Risks of Ovarian Cancer Screening

    Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to talk about the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of ovarian screening tests include the following: Finding ovarian cancer may not improve health or help a woman live longer.Screening may not improve your health or help you live longer if you have advanced ovarian cancer or if it has already spread to other places in your body. Some cancers never cause symptoms or become life-threatening, but if found by a screening test, the cancer may be treated. It is not known if treatment of these cancers would help you live longer than if no treatment were given, and treatments for cancer may have serious side effects.False-negative test results can occur.Screening test results may appear to be normal

  3. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

    The following histologic subtypes have been described.[1,2]Dysgerminoma.Other germ cell tumors: Endodermal sinus tumor (rare subtypes are hepatoid and intestinal).[1]Embryonal carcinoma.Polyembryoma.Choriocarcinoma.Teratoma: Immature.Mature: Solid.Cystic: Dermoid cyst (mature cystic teratoma).Dermoid cyst with malignant transformation.Monodermal and highly specialized: Struma ovarii.Carcinoid.Struma ovarii and carcinoid.Others (e.g., malignant neuroectodermal and ependymoma).Mixed forms.References: Gershenson DM: Update on malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. Cancer 71 (4 Suppl): 1581-90, 1993. Serov SF, Scully RE, Robin IH: International Histologic Classification of Tumours: No. 9. Histological Typing of Ovarian Tumours. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1973.

  4. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

    DysgerminomasStandard treatment options: Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant radiation therapy or chemotherapy.Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy.For patients with stage II dysgerminoma, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy are usually performed. For the younger patient who wants to preserve fertility, a unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy may be considered standard therapy, depending on the age of the patient, and adjuvant chemotherapy should be given. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Sexuality and Reproductive Issues for more information on fertility.)These patients should receive adjuvant treatment. Options include radiation therapy or chemotherapy. A disadvantage of the former is loss of fertility resulting from ovarian failure. Experience with adjuvant chemotherapy is limited, but considering the effectiveness of chemotherapy in tumors other than dysgerminoma and its effectiveness in

  5. Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

    After ovarian cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the ovaries or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out whether cancer has spread within the ovaries or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The results of the tests used to diagnose ovarian cancer are often also used to stage the disease. (See the General Information section.)There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:Through tissue. Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.Through the lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.Through the blood. Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.When cancer cells break away from the

  6. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062935-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

  7. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062967-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

  8. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage I Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

    DysgerminomasStandard treatment options:Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with or without lymphangiography or computed tomography (CT).Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by observation.Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant radiation therapy or chemotherapy.For patients with stage I dysgerminoma, unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy conserving the uterus and opposite ovary is accepted treatment of the younger patient who wants to preserve fertility or a pregnancy. Postoperative lymphangiography or CT is indicated before treatment decisions are made for patients who have not had careful surgical and pathological examination of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes during surgery. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Sexuality and Reproductive Issues for more information on fertility.)Patients who have been completely staged and have stage IA tumors may be observed carefully after surgery without adjuvant treatment. About 15% to 25% of these patients will relapse, but they can be treated

  9. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with ovarian germ cell tumors. Different types of treatment are available for patients with ovarian germ cell tumor. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Four types of standard treatment are used: SurgerySurgery is the most common treatment of ovarian germ cell tumor. A doctor may take out the cancer using one of the following types of surgery. Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: A surgical procedure to remove one ovary and one fallopian

  10. Ovarian Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Ovarian Cancer Screening

    Tests are used to screen for different types of cancer.Some screening tests are used because they have been shown to be helpful both in finding cancers early and in decreasing the chance of dying from these cancers. Other tests are used because they have been shown to find cancer in some people; however, it has not been proven in clinical trials that use of these tests will decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and most benefits. Cancer screening trials also are meant to show whether early detection (finding cancer before it causes symptoms) decreases a person's chance of dying from the disease. For some types of cancer, finding and treating the disease at an early stage may result in a better chance of recovery.There is no standard or routine screening test for ovarian cancer.Screening for ovarian cancer has not been proven to decrease the death rate from the disease.Screening for ovarian cancer is under study and

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