The FBI Weighs in on Preventing School Violence
Sept. 6, 2000 (Washington) -- An FBI report says that the way to discover a potential school shooter is to watch for behaviors suggesting a path toward violence. However, the document warns against looking for stereotypes or "profiles" that strongly predict criminal behavior.
"There is no profile of a school shooter. We say that very firmly in our monograph, and there are no warning signs," says Mary Ellen O'Toole, PhD, an FBI agent and the report's primary author at a Wednesday news conference. Titled The School Shooter: A Threat Assessment Perspective, the 45-page report offers a broader but more complex approach to determining risk and taking appropriate action.
"In today's climate, some schools tend to adopt a one-size-fits-all approach to any mention of violence. The response to every threat is the same," says the report, which was two years in the making and analyzed some 18 school shootings, including various foiled attempts.
From last year's rampage at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colo., to shootings in Springfield, Ore., and Paducah, Ky., Americans seem powerless to stop an epidemic of student killings and the subsequent wave of finger-pointing.
The report, written for the FBI's Critical Incident Response Group, says there is another way of responding to the crisis besides calling 911. First, identify and assess the threat, the student's potential for carrying it out based on the "totality of circumstances," then intervene appropriately.
It's often possible to gather intelligence on a planned act of violence through "leakage" -- gossip, computer messages, or other overt indications of imminent danger. A threat, says the report, may be veiled or direct such as, "I am going to place a bomb in the school's gym."
As words become more specific and heated, their danger potential increases, and that's where the threat assessment comes in. "It's a process which involves assessing not just the threat but assessing the individual making the threat in order to determine their potential to actually carry [it] out," O'Toole says.
Ideally, there should be a special team designated to evaluate threats and respond with the appropriate mental health or legal resources. "We can't respond to every child who makes a threat as though they were a potential killer or one of the infamous few who committed school shootings," says Dewey Cornell, a forensic psychologist at the University of Virginia and a contributor to the report.