Breath-Holding Spells - Topic Overview
What are breath-holding spells?
spells are brief periods when young children stop breathing for up to 1 minute.
These spells often cause a child to pass out (lose consciousness).
Breath-holding spells usually occur when a young child is angry, frustrated, in
pain, or afraid. But the spell is a reflex. Children don't have breath-holding spells on purpose.
There are two types of breath-holding spells:
- A cyanotic spell is caused by a change in the child's usual breathing pattern, usually in response to feeling angry or frustrated. It's the most common type.
- A pallid spell is caused by a slowing of the child's heart rate, usually in response to pain.
Some children may have both types of spells at one
time or another.
Breath-holding spells can occur
in children between 6 months and 6 years of age. They are most common from 1 to
3 years of age. Some children have them every day, and some have them only once in a while.
spells are usually not serious and don't cause lasting damage. With time, they go away on their own.
What causes breath-holding spells?
spells are usually caused by either a change in the child's breathing or
a slowing of the heart rate. These reactions may be brought on by pain or by
In some children,
breath-holding spells may be related to
iron deficiency anemia, a condition in which the body
doesn't produce a normal number of red blood cells.
What are the symptoms?
A breath-holding spell may cause:
- Fainting. It usually lasts for less than a minute.
- Twitching muscles, a stiff body, or a seizure.
- Changes in breathing and heartbeat.
- In a cyanotic spell: The child may breathe too fast or too hard. When the child breathes out, there may be a long pause before the child takes another breath.
- In a pallid spell: The heartbeat may slow down.
- Changes in skin color.
- In a cyanotic spell: The skin may turn red or blue-purple, especially around the lips.
- In a pallid spell: The skin may be pale and sweaty.
- In a cyanotic spell: There may be a short burst of intense crying.
- In a pallid spell: There may be a single cry or no cry at all.
How are breath-holding spells diagnosed?
Doctors can usually diagnose breath-holding spells based on what happens during a spell. The doctor will examine your child and ask you to
describe the spells. It may help for you to keep a record of what happens during each spell.
If your doctor thinks that your child has a seizure
disorder or another condition, such as iron deficiency anemia, your child may need other tests.
How are they treated?
Most children don't need treatment for breath-holding spells. Spells will go away as your child gets older. If your doctor thinks that
a medical condition is causing the spells, your child may need treatment.