Evaluation of CAM Approaches
It is important that the same rigorous scientific evaluation used to assess conventional approaches be used to evaluate CAM therapies. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) are sponsoring a number of clinical trials (research studies) at medical centers to evaluate CAM therapies for cancer. Conventional approaches to cancer treatment have generally been studied for safety and effectiveness through a rigorous scientific process that includes clinical trials with large numbers of patients. Less is known about the safety and effectiveness of complementary and alternative methods. Few CAM therapies have undergone rigorous evaluation. A small number of CAM therapies originally considered to be purely alternative approaches are finding a place in cancer treatment—not as cures, but as complementary therapies that may help patients feel better and recover faster. One example is acupuncture. According to a panel of
Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer Development
Age Prostate cancer incidence increases dramatically with increasing age. While a very unusual disease in men younger than 50 years,rates increase exponentially thereafter. The registration rate by age cohort in England and Wales increased from 8 per thousand population in men aged 50 to 56 years to 68 per thousand in men aged 60 to 64 years,260 per thousand in men aged 70 to 74 years,and ...
PDQ is a comprehensive cancer database available on NCI's Web site.PDQ is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. Most of the information contained in PDQ is available online at NCI's Web site. PDQ is provided as a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health, the federal government's focal point for biomedical research.PDQ contains cancer information summaries.The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries are available in two versions. The health professional versions provide detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions provide current and accurate cancer information. Images in the PDQ summaries are used with permission of the author(s), artist, and/or publisher
Methods of Prostate Cancer Genetic Research
Various research methods have been employed to uncover the landscape of genetic variation associated with prostate cancer. Specific methodologies inform of unique phenotypes or inheritance patterns. The sections below describe prostate cancer research utilizing various methods to highlight their role in uncovering the genetic basis of prostate cancer. In an effort to identify disease susceptibility genes, linkage studies are typically performed on high-risk extended families in which multiple cases of a particular disease have occurred. Typically, gene mutations identified through linkage analyses are rare in the population, highly penetrant in families, and have large effect sizes. The clinical role of mutations that are identified in linkage studies is a clearer one,
Changes to This Summary (11 / 02 / 2012)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version.
Questions or Comments About This Summary
If you have questions or comments about this summary,please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site’s Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English. ...
Changes to This Summary (03 / 20 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Changes to This Summary (04 / 05 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.SignificanceUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).Revised text to state that from 2005 to 2009 the overall age-adjusted incidence rate was 236 per 100,000 for African American men and 146.9 per 100,000 for white men (cited Howlader et al. as reference 10).Revised text to state that cancer statistics from the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute indicated that between 2002 and 2008 the proportion of disease diagnosed at a locoregional stage and at a distant stage was 93% and 4% for whites, compared with 91% and 6% for African Americans, respectively.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an
Questions and Answers About Pomegranate
What is pomegranate?The pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) is native to Asia and grown throughout the Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, East Indies, Africa, and the United States. Pomegranate has been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. Different parts of the pomegranate fruit have bioactive compounds (chemicals found in small amounts that have actions in the body that may promote good health). These include:the peel, which makes up half the fruit and contains bioactive compounds such as phenolics, flavonoids, and ellagitannins (the main source of antioxidant activity);the seeds, which contain punicic acid, an omega-5 fatty acid; andthe aril (outer layer surrounding the seeds), which contains phenolics and flavonoids including anthocyanins, which give the pomegranate fruit and juice their red color. How is pomegranate administered or consumed? Pomegranate may be consumed in the diet or taken in dietary supplements. Have any preclinical (laboratory or animal) studies been
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Sources of further information about Prostate Cancer Screening.