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Medical Reference Related to Prostate Cancer

  1. Stage III Prostate Cancer Treatment

    OverviewStage III prostate cancer is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:[1]T3a–b, N0, M0, any prostate-specific antigen (PSA), any Gleason.Extraprostatic extension with microscopic bladder neck invasion (T4) is included with T3a.External-beam radiation therapy (EBRT), interstitial implantation of radioisotopes, and radical prostatectomy are used to treat stage III prostate cancer.[2] Prognosis is greatly affected by whether regional lymph nodes are evaluated and proven not to be involved. EBRT using a linear accelerator is the most common treatment for patients with stage III prostate cancer, and large series support its success in achieving local disease control and disease-free survival (DFS).[3,4] The results of radical prostatectomy in stage III patients are greatly inferior compared with results in patients with stage II cancer. Interstitial implantation of radioisotopes is

  2. Significance

    Incidence and Mortality Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in North American men,excluding skin cancers. It is estimated that in 2006,approximately 234,460 new cases and 27,350 prostate cancer-related deaths will occur in the United States.[ 1 ] Prostate cancer is now the third leading cause of cancer death in men,exceeded only by lung cancer and colorectal cancer. It ...

  3. Changes to This Summary (02 / 15 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.IntroductionUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).Updated statistics with age-specific probabilities of being diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2013.Genes With Potential Clinical Relevance in Prostate Cancer Risk This section was comprehensively reviewed and extensively revised.Methods of Prostate Cancer Genetic ResearchAdded American Cancer Society as reference 4.Added 2q37 to the list of chromosomal regions with modest-to-strong statistical significance (logarithm of the odds score ≥2) identified by genome-wide linkage studies of families with prostate cancer (cited Cropp et al. as reference 87). Added text about a study of 10,501 prostate cancer cases and 10,831 controls from multiple cohorts who were genotyped for

  4. About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about prostate cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus

  5. Treatment Options for Recurrent Prostate Cancer

    Treatment of recurrent prostate cancer may include the following: Radiation therapy. Prostatectomy for patients initially treated with radiation therapy. Hormone therapy. Pain medication,external radiation therapy,internal radiation therapy with radioisotopes such as strontium-89,or other treatments as palliative therapy to lessen bone pain. A clinical trial of ultrasound-guided ...

  6. Changes to This Summary (01 / 10 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version.

  7. Get More Information From NCI

    Sources of further information about Prostate Cancer Prevention.

  8. Significance

    Incidence and Mortality Carcinoma of the prostate is the most common tumor in men in the United States,with 234,460 new cases and 27,350 deaths expected in 2006.[ 1 ] A wide range of estimates of the impact of the disease are notable. The disease is histologically evident in as many as 34% of men in their fifth decade and in up to 70% of men aged 80 years and older.[ 2,3 ] Prostate cancer ...

  9. Soy

    OverviewThis section contains the following key information:Soy foods (e.g., soy milk, miso, tofu, and soy flour) contain phytochemicals that may have health benefits and, among these, soy isoflavones have been the focus of most of the research.Soy isoflavones are phytoestrogens. The major isoflavones in soybeans are genistein (the most abundant), daidzein, and glycitein.Genistein affects components of multiple growth and proliferation -related pathways in prostate cancer cells, including the COX-2 /prostaglandin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathways.Some preclinical studies have indicated that the combined effect of multiple isoflavones may be greater than that of a single isoflavone.Some animal studies have demonstrated prostate cancer prevention effects with soy and genistein; however, other animal studies have yielded conflicting results regarding beneficial effects of genistein on prostate cancer metastasis.Epidemiologic studies have

  10. General CAM Information

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)—also referred to as integrative medicine—includes a broad range of healing philosophies, approaches, and therapies. A therapy is generally called complementary when it is used in addition to conventional treatments; it is often called alternative when it is used instead of conventional treatment. (Conventional treatments are those that are widely accepted and practiced by the mainstream medical community.) Depending on how they are used, some therapies can be considered either complementary or alternative. Complementary and alternative therapies are used in an effort to prevent illness, reduce stress, prevent or reduce side effects and symptoms, or control or cure disease. Unlike conventional treatments for cancer, complementary and alternative therapies are often not covered by insurance companies. Patients should check with their insurance provider to find out about coverage for complementary and alternative therapies. Cancer patients

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