Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062910-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Prostate Cancer Treatment
Stage II Prostate Cancer Treatment
OverviewStage II prostate cancer is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:Stage IIAT1a–c, N0, M0, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <20 ng/ml, Gleason 7.T1a–c, N0, M0, PSA ≥10 <20 ng/ml, Gleason ≤6.T2a, N0, M0, PSA ≥10 <20 ng/ml, Gleason ≤6.T2a, N0, M0, PSA <20 ng/ml, Gleason 7.T2b, N0, M0, PSA <20 ng/ml, Gleason ≤7.T2b, N0, M0, PSA X, Gleason X.Stage IIBT2c, N0, M0, any PSA, any Gleason.T1–2, N0, M0, PSA ≥20 ng/ml, any Gleason.T1–2, N0, M0, any PSA, Gleason ≥8.Radical prostatectomy, external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT), and interstitial implantation of radioisotopes are each employed in the treatment of stage II prostate cancer with apparently similar therapeutic effects. Radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy yield apparently similar survival rates with as many as 10 years of follow-up. For well-selected patients, radical prostatectomy
Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Zyflamend
OverviewZyflamend is a dietary supplement that contains extracts of rosemary, turmeric, ginger, holy basil, green tea, hu zhang, Chinese goldthread, barberry, oregano, and Baikal skullcap.The individual components of Zyflamend have anti-inflammatory and possible anticarcinogenic properties.In various preclinical studies, Zyflamend has been shown to suppress the expression of certain genes involved in the inflammatory response and in cancer progression, such as cyclooxygenase 1(COX-1), COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and 12-LOX.In other preclinical studies, Zyflamend has demonstrated single-agent anticancer activity, and the capacity to be combined with hormonal and chemotherapy agents for improved cancer suppression.Results of a phase I study of Zyflamend suggest that use of this supplement is not associated with serious toxicity or adverse effects.General Information and HistoryZyflamend is a dietary supplement that contains extracts of rosemary, turmeric, ginger, holy
Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Introduction
Many of the medical and scientific terms used in this summary are found in the NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms. When a linked term is clicked,the definition will appear in a separate window. The public health burden of prostate cancer is substantial. A total of 186,320 new cases of prostate cancer and 28,660 deaths from the disease are anticipated in the United States in 2008,making it the ...
Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - What is prevention?
WebMD discusses methods of preventing prostate cancer.
Recurrent Prostate Cancer Treatment
OverviewIn recurrent prostate cancer, the selection of further treatment depends on many factors, including:Previous treatment.Site of recurrence.Coexistent illnesses.Individual patient considerations. Definitive radiation therapy can be given to patients with disease that fails only locally following prostatectomy.[1,2,3,4] An occasional patient can be salvaged with prostatectomy after a local recurrence following definitive radiation therapy; however, only about 10% of patients treated initially with radiation therapy will have local relapse only. In these patients, prolonged disease control is often possible with hormonal therapy, with median cancer-specific survival of 6 years after local failure.Cryosurgical ablation of recurrence following radiation therapy is associated frequently with a high complication rate. This technique is still undergoing clinical evaluation.Hormonal therapy is used to manage most relapsing patients with
Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Identifying Genes and Inherited Variants Associated with Prostate Cancer Risk
Various research methods have been employed to uncover the landscape of genetic variation associated with prostate cancer. Specific methodologies inform of unique phenotypes or inheritance patterns. The sections below describe prostate cancer research utilizing various methods to highlight their role in uncovering the genetic basis of prostate cancer. In an effort to identify disease susceptibility genes, linkage studies are typically performed on high-risk extended families in which multiple cases of a particular disease have occurred. Typically, gene mutations identified through linkage analyses are rare in the population, highly penetrant in families, and have large effect sizes. The
Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Prostate Cancer
Recurrent prostate cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the prostate or in other parts of the body.
Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds part of the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the
Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Interventions in Familial Prostate Cancer
Refer to the PDQ summaries on Screening for Prostate Cancer; Prevention of Prostate Cancer; and Prostate Cancer Treatment for more information on interventions for sporadic nonfamilial forms of prostate cancer.As with any disease process, decisions about risk-reducing interventions for patients with an inherited predisposition to prostate cancer are best guided by randomized controlled clinical trials and knowledge of the underlying natural history of the process. Unfortunately, little is known about either the natural history or the inherent biologic aggressiveness of familial prostate cancer compared with sporadic forms. Existing studies of the natural history of prostate cancer in men with a positive family history are predominantly based on retrospective case series. Because awareness of a positive family history can lead to more frequent work-ups for cancer and result in apparently earlier prostate cancer detection, assessments of