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Medical Reference Related to Prostate Cancer

  1. Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Prostate Cancer

    Carcinoma of the prostate is predominantly a tumor of older men: the median age at diagnosis is 72 years.[1] Prostate cancer may be cured when localized, and it frequently responds to treatment when widespread. The rate of tumor growth varies from very slow to moderately rapid, and some patients may have prolonged survival even after the cancer has metastasized to distant sites, such as bone. The 5-year relative survival rate for men diagnosed in the United States from 2001 to 2007 with local or regional disease was 100%, and the rate for distant disease was 28.7%; a 99% survival rate was observed for all stages combined.[2][SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Prostate] The approach to treatment is influenced by age and coexisting medical problems. Side effects of various forms of treatment should be considered in selecting appropriate management.Many patients—especially those with localized tumors—may die of other illnesses without ever having suffered disability from the cancer, even

  2. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Green Tea

    OverviewThis section contains the following key information:All tea originates from the Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze plant, and the methods by which the leaves are processed determine the type of tea produced. For green tea, the leaves are steamed and dried.Some research suggests that green tea may have a protective effect against cardiovascular disease and against various forms of cancer, including prostate cancer.Catechins are polyphenol compounds in tea that are associated with many of tea's proposed health benefits.Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in tea, acts as an androgen antagonist and can suppress prostate cancer cell proliferation, suppress production of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by prostate cancer cells, and increase prostate cancer cell death in vitro.Results from one in vitro study showed that prostate cancer cells were less susceptible to radiation -induced apoptosis when exposed to EGCG 30 minutes

  3. Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  4. Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  5. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Identifying Genes and Inherited Variants Associated With Prostate Cancer Risk

    Various research methods have been employed to uncover the landscape of genetic variation associated with prostate cancer. Specific methodologies inform of unique phenotypes or inheritance patterns. The sections below describe prostate cancer research utilizing various methods to highlight their role in uncovering the genetic basis of prostate cancer. In an effort to identify disease susceptibility genes, linkage studies are typically performed on high-risk extended families in which multiple cases of a particular disease have occurred. Typically, gene mutations identified through linkage analyses are rare in the population, highly penetrant in families, and have large effect sizes. The

  6. Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Significance

    Incidence and MortalityProstate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in North American men, excluding skin cancers. It is estimated that in 2013, approximately 238,590 new cases and 29,720 prostate cancer-related deaths will occur in the United States.[1] Prostate cancer is now the second leading cause of cancer death in men, exceeded only by lung cancer. It accounts for 28% of all male cancers and 10% of male cancer-related deaths.[1] Age-adjusted incidence rates increased steadily over the past several decades, with particularly dramatic increases associated with the inception of widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the late 1980s and early 1990s, followed by a more recent fall in incidence. Age-adjusted mortality rates have recently paralleled incidence rates, with an increase followed by a decrease in the early 1990s.[2] It has been suggested that declines in mortality rates in certain jurisdictions reflect the benefit of PSA screening,[3] but

  7. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Introduction

    Men in the United States get prostate cancer more than any other type of cancer except skin cancer. It is found mainly in older men. In the United States, about one out of five men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die of it.Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a form of treatment used in addition to (complementary) or instead of (alternative) standard treatments. CAM treatments generally are not considered standard medical approaches. Standard treatments go through a long and careful research process to prove they are safe and effective, but less is known about most types of CAM. CAM use among prostate cancer patients is reported to be common. CAM treatments used by prostate cancer patients include certain foods, dietary supplements, herbs, vitamins, and minerals. This PDQ CAM summary gives general information about using foods and dietary supplements to lower the risk of developing prostate cancer or for treating

  8. Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Summary of Evidence

    Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Prevention of Prostate Cancer,Prostate Cancer Treatment,and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available. Digital Rectal Examination and Prostate-Specific Antigen Benefits The evidence is insufficient to determine whether screening for prostate cancer with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or digital rectal exam (DRE) reduces ...

  9. Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview

    There are different types of treatment for patients with prostate cancer. Different types of treatment are available for patients with prostate cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Eight types of standard treatment are used:Watchful waiting or active surveillanceWatchful waiting and active surveillance are treatments used for older men who do not have symptoms or have other medical conditions and for men whose prostate cancer is found during a screening test.Watchful waiting is

  10. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Genes With Potential Clinical Relevance in Prostate Cancer Risk

    While genetic testing for prostate cancer is not yet standard clinical practice, research from selected cohorts has reported that prostate cancer risk is elevated in men with mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and on a smaller scale, in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Since clinical genetic testing is available for these genes, information about risk of prostate cancer based on alterations in these genes is included in this section. In addition, mutations in HOXB13 were reported to account for a proportion of hereditary prostate cancer. Although clinical testing is not yet available for HOXB13 alterations, it is expected that this gene will have clinical relevance in the future and therefore it is also included in this section. The genetic alterations described in this section require further study and are not to be used

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