Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Prostate Cancer Prevention
Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.The following risk factors may increase the risk of prostate cancer:Age Prostate cancer is rare in men younger than 50 years of age. The chance of developing prostate cancer increases as men get older.Family history of prostate cancer A man whose father, brother, or son has had prostate cancer has a higher-than-average risk of prostate cancer.Race Prostate cancer occurs more often in African-American men than in white men. African-American men with prostate cancer are more likely to die from the disease than white men with prostate
Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Identifying Genes and Inherited Variants Associated with Prostate Cancer Risk
Various research methods have been employed to uncover the landscape of genetic variation associated with prostate cancer. Specific methodologies inform of unique phenotypes or inheritance patterns. The sections below describe prostate cancer research utilizing various methods to highlight their role in uncovering the genetic basis of prostate cancer. In an effort to identify disease susceptibility genes, linkage studies are typically performed on high-risk extended families in which multiple cases of a particular disease have occurred. Typically, gene mutations identified through linkage analyses are rare in the population, highly penetrant in families, and have large effect sizes. The
Questions and Answers About Soy
What is soy?The soybean plant has been grown in Asia for food since ancient times. Soy first arrived in Europe and North America in the 18th century. The soybean can be processed into a wide variety of products including soy milk, miso, tofu, soy flour, and oil. Soy foods contain many phytochemicals that may have health benefits. Isoflavones are the most widely researched compounds in soy. Major isoflavones in the soybean include genistein (which may be the most bioactive isoflavone), daidzein, and glycitein. Isoflavones protect the soybean plant from stress and have antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal actions.Isoflavones are phytoestrogens (estrogen -like substances found in plants) that attach to estrogen receptors in cells. Genistein has been shown to affect many pathways in prostate cancer cells involved in the growth and spread of cancer. How is soy administered or consumed? Soy may be consumed in the diet or taken in dietary supplements. Have any preclinical (laboratory
Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 22 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Questions and Answers About Zyflamend
What is Zyflamend?Zyflamend is a dietary supplement that contains 10 different herbs. Zyflamend contains extracts of rosemary, turmeric, ginger, holy basil, green tea, hu zhang (Polygonum cuspidatum, a source of resveratrol), Chinese goldthread, barberry, oregano, and Baikal skullcap.The extracts found in Zyflamend have anti-inflammatory activity and possible anticancer benefits. There is limited evidence about how Zyflamend may act against tumor growth. Zyflamend has been shown to interfere with the activity of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes, which are involved in the development of inflammation and possibly cancer. Zyflamend may also act against the NF-kappa B and lipoxygenase (LOX) families of proteins that stimulate tumor growth. How is Zyflamend administered or consumed?Zyflamend is taken as a dietary supplement in capsule form. Have any preclinical (laboratory or animal) studies been conducted using Zyflamend?Laboratory and animal research has recently been done to study the effects of
Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Lycopene
OverviewThis section contains the following key information:Lycopene is a carotenoid, a natural pigment made by plants and various fruits and vegetables, including tomatoes, apricot, guava, and watermelon.Lycopene's absorption is improved with concurrent dietary fat intake.Lycopene inhibits androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer cells in vitro and, along with some of its metabolites, reduces prostate cancer cell proliferation and may modulate cell-cycle progression.Lycopene may also affect the insulin-like growth factor intracellular pathway in prostate cancer cells.Results from several in vitro and animal studies have indicated that lycopene may have chemopreventive effects for cancers of the prostate, skin, breast, lung, and liver; however, human trials have been inconsistent in their findings. Clinical trials utilizing lycopene in prostate cancer patients with various different clinical presentations (e.g., early stage, prostate-specific
Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview
Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Prostate Cancer Screening,Prostate Cancer Treatment,and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available. Benefits From Finasteride and Dutasteride Chemoprevention Based on solid evidence,chemoprevention with finasteride and dutasteride reduces the incidence of prostate cancer,but the evidence is inadequate to determine whether ...
Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062853-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Prostate Cancer Prevention
Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (06 / 10 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version.
Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options by Stage
A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Stage I Prostate CancerStandard treatment of stage I prostate cancer may include the following:Watchful waiting.Active surveillance. If the cancer begins to grow, hormone therapy may be given.Radical prostatectomy, usually with pelvic lymphadenectomy. Radiation therapy may be given after surgery.External-beam radiation therapy. Hormone therapy may be given after radiation therapy.Internal radiation therapy with radioactive seeds.A clinical trial of high-intensity focused ultrasound.A clinical trial of cryosurgery.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I prostate cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the