Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic - Stage II Prostate Cancer Treatment
OverviewStage II prostate cancer is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:Stage IIAT1a–c, N0, M0, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <20 ng/ml, Gleason 7.T1a–c, N0, M0, PSA ≥10 <20 ng/ml, Gleason ≤6.T2a, N0, M0, PSA ≥10 <20 ng/ml, Gleason ≤6.T2a, N0, M0, PSA <20 ng/ml, Gleason 7.T2b, N0, M0, PSA <20 ng/ml, Gleason ≤7.T2b, N0, M0, PSA X, Gleason X.Stage IIBT2c, N0, M0, any PSA, any Gleason.T1–2, N0, M0, PSA ≥20 ng/ml, any Gleason.T1–2, N0, M0, any PSA, Gleason ≥8.Radical prostatectomy, external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT), and interstitial implantation of radioisotopes are each employed in the treatment of stage II prostate cancer with apparently similar therapeutic effects. Radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy yield apparently similar survival rates with as many as 10 years of follow-up. For well-selected patients, radical prostatectomy
Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic - Soy
OverviewZyflamend is a dietary supplement that contains extracts of rosemary, turmeric, ginger, holy basil, green tea, hu zhang, Chinese goldthread, barberry, oregano, and Baikal skullcap.The individual components of Zyflamend have anti-inflammatory and possible anticarcinogenic properties.In various preclinical studies, Zyflamend has been shown to suppress the expression of certain genes involved in the inflammatory response and in cancer progression, such as cyclooxygenase 1(COX-1), COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and 12-LOX.In other preclinical studies, Zyflamend has demonstrated single-agent anticancer activity, and the capacity to be combined with hormonal and chemotherapy agents for improved cancer suppression.Results of a phase I study of Zyflamend suggest that use of this supplement is not associated with serious toxicity or adverse effects.General Information and HistoryZyflamend is a dietary supplement that contains extracts of rosemary, turmeric, ginger, holy
Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic - Questions and Answers About Modified Citrus Pectin
What is modified citrus pectin?Pectin is a type of polysaccharide (a carbohydrate with many small sugar molecules that are chemically linked). Pectin is found in the cell walls of most plants and has gel-like qualities that are useful in making many types of food and medicine.Citrus pectin is found in the peel and pulp of citrus fruits such as oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. Citrus pectin can be modified with high pH and heat to break its molecules into smaller pieces. Modified citrus pectin (also called MCP) can be digested and absorbed by the body. How is MCP administered or consumed? MCP may be taken by mouth in powder or capsule form. Have any preclinical (laboratory or animal) studies been conducted using MCP? A study in prostate cancer cells compared 3 different kinds of pectin: citrus pectin, PectaSol (a dietary supplement with MCP), and fractionated pectin powder. Prostate cancer cells treated with the pectin powder had more damage than those treated with citrus pectin
Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About CAM
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) facilitates research and evaluation of complementary and alternative practices, and provides information about a variety of approaches to health professionals and the public.NCCAM ClearinghousePost Office Box 7923 Gaithersburg, MD 20898–7923Telephone: 1–888–644–6226 (toll free) 301–519–3153 (for International callers)TTY (for deaf and hard of hearing callers): 1–866–464–3615Fax: 1–866–464–3616E-mail: email@example.com Web site: http://nccam.nih.govCAM on PubMedNCCAM and the NIH National Library of Medicine (NLM) jointly developed CAM on PubMed, a free and easy-to-use search tool for finding CAM-related journal citations. As a subset of the NLM's PubMed bibliographic database, CAM on PubMed features more than 230,000 references and abstracts for CAM-related articles from
Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic - Changes to This Summary (09 / 30 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.This summary was comprehensively reviewed and extensively revised.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Cancer Genetics Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic - Evidence of Benefit
Before the 1990s, the digital rectal examination (DRE) was the test traditionally used for prostate cancer screening. Two other procedures are also available: transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations. Prostate cancer screening is controversial because of the lack of definitive evidence of benefit. A small randomized trial in Sweden evaluated the effects of screening men aged 50 to 69 years every 3 years; the first two screenings included DRE only, followed by two screenings with DRE combined with a test for PSA. The trial was not powered to detect even moderate differences in prostate cancer mortality, which was the same in the two groups: 1.3% (20 of 1,494 patients) for men assigned to screening and 1.3% (97 of 7,532 patients) for controls. The controversy persists. A nested case-control study was conducted at ten U.S. Department of Veterans
Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic - Questions or Comments About This Summary
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Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic - Interventions in Familial Prostate Cancer
Refer to the PDQ summaries on Screening for Prostate Cancer; Prevention of Prostate Cancer; and Prostate Cancer Treatment for more information on interventions for sporadic nonfamilial forms of prostate cancer.As with any disease process, decisions about risk-reducing interventions for patients with an inherited predisposition to prostate cancer are best guided by randomized controlled clinical trials and knowledge of the underlying natural history of the process. Unfortunately, little is known about either the natural history or the inherent biologic aggressiveness of familial prostate cancer compared with sporadic forms. Existing studies of the natural history of prostate cancer in men with a positive family history are predominantly based on retrospective case series. Because awareness of a positive family history can lead to more frequent work-ups for cancer and result in apparently earlier prostate cancer detection, assessments of
Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic - Introduction
Many of the medical and scientific terms used in this summary are found in the NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms. When a linked term is clicked,the definition will appear in a separate window. The public health burden of prostate cancer is substantial. A total of 186,320 new cases of prostate cancer and 28,660 deaths from the disease are anticipated in the United States in 2008,making it the ...
Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic - Changes to This Summary (02 / 27 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.