Stage II Prostate Cancer
Treatment options under clinical evaluation:
- Ultrasound-guided percutaneous cryosurgery.
Cryosurgery is a surgical technique that involves destruction of prostate cancer cells by intermittent freezing of the prostate tissue with cryoprobes and is followed by thawing.[Level of evidence: 3iiiC][49,50][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] Cryosurgery is less well established than standard prostatectomy, and long-term outcomes are not as well established as with prostatectomy or radiation therapy. Serious toxic effects include bladder outlet injury, urinary incontinence, sexual impotence, and rectal injury. (For more information on impotence, refer to the Sexuality and Reproductive Issues summary.) The frequency of other side effects and the probability of cancer control at 5 years' follow-up have varied among reporting centers, and series are small compared with surgery and radiation therapy.[49,50]
- High-intensity-focused ultrasound.[51,52,53]
- Proton-beam radiation therapy. Outcome data is awaited.
- Other clinical trials, including trials of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy followed by radical prostatectomy.[54,55]
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage II prostate cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
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