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Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview for Prostate Cancer

Table 9. Treatment Options by Stage for Prostate Cancer continued...

Serious toxic effects associated with cryosurgery include bladder outlet injury, urinary incontinence, sexual impotence, and rectal injury. Impotence is common, ranging from about 47% to 100%. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Sexuality and Reproductive Issues for more information on impotence.)

The frequency of other side effects and the probability of cancer control at 5 years' follow-up have varied among reporting centers, and series are small compared with surgery and radiation therapy.[87,88] Other major complications include urethral sloughing, urinary fistula or stricture, and bladder neck obstruction.[89]

Proton-beam therapy

There is interest in the use of proton-beam therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. Although the dose distribution of this form of charged-particle radiation could theoretically improve the therapeutic ratio of prostate radiation, allowing for an increase in dose to the tumor without a substantial increase in side effects, no randomized controlled trials have been reported that compare its efficacy and toxicity with those of other forms of radiation therapy.

Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy

The role of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy is not established.[22,23]


Bicalutamide has not been shown to improve OS in patients with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer.

Evidence (bicalutamide):

  1. The Early Prostate Cancer program is a large, randomized, placebo-controlled, international trial that compared bicalutamide (150 mg orally per day) plus standard care (radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, or watchful waiting, depending on local custom) with standard care alone for men with nonmetastatic localized or locally advanced prostate cancer (T1–2, N0, and NX; T3–4, any N; or any T, N+). Less than 2% of the 8,113 men had known nodal disease.[90][Level of evidence: 1iA]
    • At a median follow-up of 7.4 years, there was no difference in OS between the bicalutamide and placebo groups (about 76% in both arms [hazard ratio, 0.99; 95%, 0.91–1.09; P = .89]).

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with prostate cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.


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Last Updated: February 25, 2014
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