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Gail L. Nunlee-Bland, MD, chief of endocrinology and director, Diabetes Treatment Center, Howard University.
Amy Krambeck, MD, Michael O. Koch professor of urology, Indiana University School of Medicine.
Cleveland Clinic: “Urine Changes.”
Metabolites: “Quantitative Determination of Common Urinary Odorants and Their Glucuronide Conjugates in Human Urine.”
Indiana University Health: “Urine Trouble If You Eat Asparagus.”
UnityPoint Health: “What Causes Urine to Smell Bad?”
CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology: “Crowdsourced Asparagus Urinary Odor Population Kinetics.”
BMJ: “Sniffing out significant ‘Pee values’: genome wide association of asparagus anosmia.”
Yale Medicine: “5 Ways You Could Pee Better.”
Family Practice: “Accuracy of urinary symptoms and urine microscopy in diagnosing urinary tract infection in women.”
CDC: “Urinary Tract Infection,” “Chlamydia: Treatment and Care.”
Kidney Health (Australia): “Fact Sheet: Kidney Stones.”
Leslie, S.W., Sajjad, H., Nazzal, L. “Renal Calculi (Cystinuria, Cystine Stones).” StatPearls Publishing, 2020.
Mayo Clinic: “Hyperglycemia in diabetes,” “Strong-smelling Urine Not Necessarily Cause for Concern.”
American Family Physician: “Urinalysis: “A Comprehensive Review.”
American Diabetes Association: “DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones.”
Nutrition & Metabolism: “Branched-chain amino acids in health and disease: metabolism, alterations in blood plasma, and as supplements.”
National Organization for Rare Disorders: “Maple Syrup Urine Disease,” “Tyrosinemia Type 1,” “Trimethylaminuria.”
MIT Medical: “Ask Lucy: Could it B-vitamins?”
Harvard Health Publishing: “Urine color and odor changes.”
Frontiers in Psychology: “Pregnancy and olfaction: a review.”
British Journal of General Practice: “A nose for trouble.”
Office on Women’s Health: “Douching.”
Urology Care Foundation: “What is a Bladder Fistula?”
Reviewed by Minesh Khatri, MD on April 21, 2020
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