Medically Reviewed by Dany Paul Baby, MD on June 26, 2022
Foot Spas

Foot Spas


Salon pedicures can be a treat for your feet, but sometimes they cause infection -- even if you bring your own tools. That’s because foot spas (the basins where you soak your feet) can harbor bacteria that enter your skin through tiny cuts. To protect your feet and lower legs, pass on pedicures if you have bites or scratches. Also, wait 24 hours after you wax, shave, or use hair removal cream.

Exercising Too Much, Too Soon

Exercising Too Much, Too Soon


Heads up, weekend warriors: Resist the urge to ramp up your workouts too quickly. You could end up with a stress fracture. These small cracks or bad bruises in foot bones are not only painful, but they’ll sideline you for a while. Stress fractures take 6 to 8 weeks to heal. You may even need crutches. Keep that in mind when your buddy begs you to join them for a half marathon over the weekend but the farthest you’ve run is a 5K.

Too Much Body Fat

Too Much Body Fat


Overweight and obese people tend to have more foot pain than those who have a healthy weight. The link seems obvious -- more weight means more pressure on feet, right? The truth may not be so simple. Research suggests that more fat mass, rather than just more weight, is driving the pain. The theory is that fat tissue may cause inflammation and other problems that damage tissues in the foot.




The habit isn’t just bad for your lungs and heart. Heavy smokers can be at risk of Buerger’s disease. When you have it, inflammation and clotting of your blood vessels cause severe pain in your hands and feet.  You can get sores on your fingers and toes, and the tissue there can start to die, a problem called gangrene. The only way to treat Buerger’s disease is to completely quit smoking.

Peripheral Artery Disease

Peripheral Artery Disease


Smoking also makes you much more likely to get peripheral artery disease (PAD), a serious condition that can affect your feet. In PAD, the arteries become narrow, cutting down on blood flow to your limbs. Calf pain is the most common symptom, but the lack of blood flow can cause foot and toe sores that won’t heal. In severe cases, gangrene and amputation come next.

A High-Heel Habit

A High-Heel Habit


You probably don’t need science to tell you that high heels can hurt your feet. Even one night out in stilettos can make them ache the next day. Still, the research is out there. Studies show high heels can cause:

  • Stiffness of the Achilles tendon
  • Foot and ankle sprains and strains
  • Foot pain and calluses
Flip-Flop Sandals

Flip-Flop Sandals


Flip-flops are beloved warm-weather shoes for good reason. They’re easy to slip on, affordable, and comfortable. But supportive shoes are much better for your feet. A lot of time in flip-flops can lead to problems such as:

  • Stubbed or scraped toes due to lack of protection
  • Pain at the balls of your feet from lack of padding
  • Tendon inflammation, since your toes flex and grip to keep the sandals on
Alcohol Abuse

Alcohol Abuse


Alcohol is toxic to nerves, and it can damage the ones in your feet over time. That can give you a burning or tingling sensation. The condition is called alcoholic neuropathy. Sometimes it has another cause, though: a lack of vitamins, especially B vitamins, which is also common in alcoholism.

Trimming Toenails the Wrong Way

Trimming Toenails the Wrong Way


Trim your toenails so they’re even with the tips of your toes. Leave them too long and they can get caught on something. Cut them too short and you could get ingrown toenails. How? The tops of your shoes could press super-short nails into the tissue around them. Another way to prevent ingrown toenails is to always trim your toenails straight across, never in a curve.

Public Pools, Showers, Locker Rooms

Public Pools, Showers, Locker Rooms


Athlete’s foot is a fungal infection that spreads easily, especially in warm, damp environments where fungi thrive. It’s no surprise, then, that people pick up this itchy foot rash in public showers and locker rooms, and from walking around public pools. This is a time when flip-flops are a good idea. The best way to prevent athlete’s foot is to keep your bare feet off the ground in these public spaces.

Damp Socks

Damp Socks


Going barefoot in germy public spaces isn’t the only way to get athlete’s foot. Damp shoes and socks encourage fungus to grow and spread. Change your socks often if you have sweaty feet. Dry your feet completely when you get out of the shower. When you can, wear light shoes that “breathe.” And definitely don’t share shoes with someone else, even if you think they’re completely dry. Athlete’s foot can easily spread this way.

Poorly Controlled Diabetes

Poorly Controlled Diabetes


Two diabetes complications are nerve damage and poor blood flow, both of which can put your feet in danger. Nerve damage in the foot can mean you won’t feel sores on your feet. Poor circulation means these sores, or foot ulcers, heal slowly or not at all. Sometimes the result is amputation. To protect your feet:

  • Get your diabetes under control
  • Inspect and wash your feet daily
  • Don’t go barefoot
  • Have a doctor check out your feet regularly

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Environmental Protection Agency: “Preventing Pedicure Foot Spa Infections.”

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons: “Stress Fractures of the Foot and Ankle.”

Obesity: "Fat Mass Is a Predictor of Incident Foot Pain.”

The Johns Hopkins Vasculitis Center: “Buerger’s Disease.”

Mayo Clinic: “Peripheral Artery Disease,” “Ingrown Toenails,” “Athlete’s Foot,” “Amputation and diabetes: How to protect your feet.”

Journal of Applied Physiology: “Long-term use of high-heeled shoes alters the neuromechanics of human walking.”

The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: “Epidemiology of High-Heel Shoe Injuries in U.S. Women.”

Foot and Ankle Surgery: "Does the use of high-heeled shoes lead to fore-foot pathology?”

UC Irvine Health: “The Trouble With Your Flip Flops.”

The Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy: “Alcohol.”