Swollen Lymph Nodes

 

Swollenlymph nodes are a sign that your body is fighting off an infection or an illness. Most of the time, they return to normal size when their job is done.

 Lymph nodes are round, bean-shaped glands, and you have them throughout your body. There are clusters of them in places like your neck, under your arm, and in the crease between your thigh and your torso (where your leg begins). You can sometimes feel these clusters as little bumps, especially if they're swollen.

They're part of your lymphatic system. Along with your spleen, tonsils, and adenoids, they help protect you from harmful germs.

Symptoms of Swollen Lymph Nodes

The most common signs are:

  • Tenderness or pain in your lymph nodes 

  • Swelling that makes your lymph nodes the size of a kidney bean or possibly larger

Because swollen lymph nodes are usually linked to some type of illness, you might also have other symptoms, depending on what that illness is:

  • Runny nose, sore throat, or fever (caused by an upper respiratory infection)

  • Swelling of clusters of lymph nodes in different places in your body (caused by an infection or an immune system disorder, like rheumatoid arthritis)

  • Hard lymph nodes that won’t move or get bigger quickly (signs of certain types of cancer)

Causes of Swollen Lymph Nodes

Lymph nodes have immune cells called lymphocytes in them. They attack bacteria, viruses, and other things that can make you sick. When you're fighting off harmful germs, your body makes more of those immune cells -- that causes the swelling.

Your lymph nodes come across all kinds of germs, so they can be swollen for lots of reasons. Usually, it's something that's relatively easy to treat, like:

  •  A virus, like a cold

  • A bacterial infection, like an ear infection, skin infection, or infected tooth

Much less often, it can be a more serious illness. They can include:

  • Tuberculosis, an infection that usually affects your lungs

  • A problem with your immune system, like lupus or rheumatoid arthritis

  • Certain kinds of cancer, including:

    • Lymphoma, a cancer of the lymphatic system

    • Leukemia, a cancer of the blood

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When to See a Doctor for Swollen Lymph Nodes

In most cases, swollen glands return to normal size after the illness or infection has passed. But here are some things to watch for:

  • Glands that swelled up very suddenly

  • Glands that are much larger than they should be, not just mildly swollen

  • Glands that feel hard or don't move when you push on them

  • Glands that stay swollen for more than 5 days in children or 2 to 4 weeks in adults

  • The area around the glands turns red or purple, it feels warm or you see pus

  • Swelling in your arm or groin

  • Sudden weight loss

  • A fever that doesn't go away

  • Night sweats

If you notice any of these, see your doctor. 

Swollen Lymph Nodes Diagnosis

Your doctor will start by asking you about your medical history and giving you a physical exam.They might be able to get an idea of what's making your glands swell by where they are in your body. 

They also may recommend one of these tests to find out more about what's going on:

  • Blood tests

  • X-rays

  • Ultrasound. High-frequency sound waves are used to let your doctor see what’s happening inside your body.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging scan (MRI). A powerful magnet and radio waves are used to make detailed images of your organs and tissues.

  • Biopsy. Lymph node tissue is removed and looked at under a microscope.

  • PET scan. This looks at the chemical activity in parts of your body. It may help identify a variety of conditions like some cancers, heart disease and brain disorders. This is done less commonly.

  • CT scan. A series of X-rays are taken from different angles and put together to form a more complete picture.

Swollen Lymph Node Treatment and Home Remedies

If your swollen lymph nodes aren’t caused by something serious, they will go away on their own.  A few things may help with any discomfort while you wait for it to run its course:

  • Warm compress. A washcloth rinsed in hot water and placed on the area that hurts may help ease pain.

  • Rest. Getting good rest can help you get over a mild illness faster.  

  • Over-the-counter pain relievers: Acetaminophen, aspirin,  ibuprofen, or naproxen may make you feel better. (Talk to your doctor before giving aspirin to children or teenagers.)

If something more serious is causing the swelling, treatment can include:

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Hansa D. Bhargava, MD on June 16, 2020

Sources

SOURCES:

Mayo Clinic: “Swollen Lymph Nodes."

American Cancer Society: “Tests for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.”

Cleveland Clinic: “Swollen Lymph Nodes: Management and Treatment”

HealthyChildren.org: “Swollen Glands.”

National Cancer Institute: “NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms.”

LiveScience.com: “Lymphatic System: Facts, Functions & Diseases.”

Mayo Clinic: “Depression (major depressive disorder).”

 
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