ADHD in Children: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Medically Reviewed by Poonam Sachdev on June 13, 2023
9 min read

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is a difference in brain development that can affect their ability to focus and self-control.

It's one of the most common brain disorders in children, affecting nearly 10% of kids in the U.S. While it's most often diagnosed in children, ADHD can last into adulthood.

Symptoms of ADHD vary from child to child. But most kids tend to show a combination of these key signs:

  • Inattention. Your child may have trouble paying attention or is easily distracted.
  • Impulsivity. Your child acts without thinking, such as interrupting others.
  • Hyperactivity. Your child is constantly in motion, overactive, or talks too much. 

You may notice squirming, fidgeting, and other signs of hyperactivity in your kid before you notice inattention or impulsivity.

Symptoms may include:

  • Trouble with finishing tasks
  • Losing things often
  • Lots of energy
  • Running or climbing at inappropriate times
  • Forgetfulness
  • A hard time waiting their turn

Learn more about the symptoms of ADHD in children .

Your child's symptoms largely determine which of the three main types of ADHD they have:

  • Mainly hyperactive and impulsive type. Children show both hyperactive and impulsive behavior.
  • Mainly inattentive type. This was formerly called attention deficit disorder (ADD). Children with these symptoms have trouble paying attention. You might not notice their symptoms as quickly as with the first type.
  • Combined type (inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive). Children with this type of ADHD have several symptoms from the first two types. This is the most common form of ADHD.

Find out more about the types of ADHD in children .

Doctors don't know exactly what causes ADHD. But it's known to run in families. One out of 4 kids with ADHD also have a parent with ADHD.

Research has shown that children with ADHD may have differences in:

  • Areas of the brain that control social skills, attention, and movement
  • Chemicals that control communication in the brain 

Experts also believe that the brains of children with ADHD tend to mature later than those of kids without the condition. 

Studies have found no evidence that ADHD could be caused by:

  • Sugar
  • Vaccines
  • Poor parenting
  • TV or video games



Scientists are also studying whether these things are linked to higher chances of ADHD in children:

  • Alcohol or tobacco use during pregnancy
  • Premature birth
  • Brain injury
  • Exposure during pregnancy to certain environmental risks (like lead)
  • Low birth weight

ADHD in children epidemiology

  • About 1 in 10 children in the U.S. have been diagnosed with ADHD.
  • Boys are more than twice as likely as girls to be diagnosed. Some researchers think girls may be underdiagnosed because they're more likely to have the inattentive type of ADHD rather than the more visible hyperactive or impulsive type.
  • Six in 10 children with ADHD also have another mental, emotional, or behavioral disorder. 

There isn't a simple test for ADHD. Your doctor or a specialist will make a diagnosis based on a physical exam, medical history, and your child's symptoms.

Your child may get an ADHD diagnosis if they meet all of these conditions: 

  • They have at least six ADHD symptoms, such as fidgeting a lot or being easily disrupted.
  • The symptoms last for 6 months or longer.
  • These symptoms cause issues for your child in more than one setting, such as home, school, and socially.
  • Their symptoms started before age 12.

Studies show that long-term treatment with a combination of behavioral therapy and medications works better than medication alone.

For children under age 6, behavioral therapy is the recommended treatment. As they grow older, their doctor may prescribe medications as well.

Behavioral treatments for children with ADHD

A therapist or counselor can teach children techniques to help them better manage their behaviors. They can also teach parents skills to help them manage their children's behavior. These include: 

  • Creating more structure and clear expectations
  • Encouraging routines 
  • Rewarding good behaviors and discouraging negative behaviors

School-age children also get therapy to help them with things like:

  • Time management
  • Organization
  • Planning ahead

Social skills training is another form of ADHD treatment that may benefit your child. This trains them in behaviors that help them develop and maintain social relationships.

Drug treatments for ADHD in children

A class of drugs called psychostimulants (or sometimes just stimulants) is an effective treatment for many children with ADHD. These medicines help children focus their thoughts and ignore distractions. Some nonstimulant medications also work in similar ways to treat ADHD. Some stimulant drugs include:

  • Amphetamines, such as dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), dextroamphetamine-amphetamine (Adderall XR, Mydayis), and lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse)
  • Methylphenidates, such as methylphenidate (Concerta, Daytrana, Ritalin) and dexmethylphenidate (Focalin)

Many ADHD medicines are available in short-acting (immediate-release), long-acting, and intermediate-acting (in between short and long) forms.

It may take some time for you and your a doctor to find the best medication, dosage, and schedule for a child with the condition. And medications don't work for all children with ADHD.

ADHD drugs sometimes have side effects such as headaches or appetite loss. But usually, side effects are mild and don't last long.

Alternative treatments

No alternative treatments have been proven to help relieve ADHD symptoms. But some people report benefits from: 

  • Yoga. This gentle form of exercise could help your child relax and learn discipline. Some yoga studios offer classes specifically for children.
  • Meditation. Whether they do it with an instructor or through a device, this may help your child feel calmer.
  • Neurofeedback training. In this type of training, your child focuses on a task while a doctor scans their brain activity using an electroencephalograph (EEG). They use feedback from the machine to help the child be aware of when they're losing focus. 

Which treatment is best for my child?

No single treatment is right for every child with ADHD. Your doctor will consider your child's needs and history and work with you to find the best solution.

For example, a treatment that gives your child side effects may be the wrong choice. If a child with ADHD also has anxiety or depression, a treatment combining medication and behavioral therapy might be best.

About 3 in 4 children with ADHD in the U.S. get treatment for their condition. Researchers find that:

  • About 30% use medications alone for treatment
  • About 15% get behavior treatment alone
  • About 32% get both meds and behavior treatment for their ADHD

Learn about the latest treatment options for children with ADHD .

Research doesn't always agree on which racial and ethnic groups are most likely to have childhood ADHD. The CDC says that roughly 17% of Black children, 15% of White children, and 14% of Hispanic children have been diagnosed with ADHD or a learning disorder. But other research has found that Black children are less likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than White children. There's evidence that Black and Hispanic children with ADHD are less likely to get treatment, too.

Because doctors use input from parents and teachers to diagnose ADHD, personal opinions and biases play a role. Other reasons for disparities could include:

  • Teachers may be more likely to identify symptoms in certain groups.
  • Parents may fear that an ADHD diagnosis could result in stigma and increase racism against their children.
  • Families may distrust the health care system or lack access to health care.

Research has also found that both boys and girls who live in families with incomes below the poverty line are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD.

ADHD that goes untreated can lead to lifelong complications. These include:

Healthy foods, regular exercise, setting rules, and positive reinforcement are important for all children. But that's especially true for kids who have ADHD.

Diet for ADHD in children

There's little scientific evidence that any certain food or diet can help with ADHD. But we do know that a healthy, balanced diet helps keep a child's body and brain working well. And since ADHD medications can lower appetite, children who take these meds may have a harder time eating well.   

While certain vitamin or mineral supplements might improve symptoms in children who are deficient in these nutrients, there's no evidence they can help others. Talk to your child's doctor before giving them a dietary supplement.

Managing ADHD in children

Support groups and parenting skills training can help you learn more about ADHD and how to parent a child with the condition.

In general, Here are a few tips for helping your child's ADHD:

  • Try to make sure your child gets the right amount of sleep for their age.
  • Watch for signs that your child may be stressed or overstimulated and intervene.
  • Reward or praise good behaviors, and set clear boundaries about unacceptable behaviors.
  • Keep playtimes and other social interactions short to help your child retain self control.
  • Talk to your child's teacher and school administrators about your child's ADHD. They can help you decide whether accommodations would help and tell you how to apply for them.
  • Regular exercise (30-60 minutes a day) helps many kids with ADHD manage some of their symptoms.
  • If your child is mature and motivated enough to work with an ADHD coach, these professionals can help them learn practical skills and work toward their goals.

Childhood ADHD costs

If your child has been diagnosed with ADHD, you might have certain additional costs, such as:

  • Visits to doctors and mental health specialists
  • Medications
  • Coaching
  • Tutoring
  • Expenses due to accidents or injuries

 According to one study, parents with private insurance can expect extra health care expenses of $2,857-$3,922 a year for a child with ADHD, depending on the child's age. Those with Medicare will pay $2,712 to $3,509 more than they would for a child without the condition.

Childhood ADHD and mental health

Having ADHD doesn't mean your child has mental health issues. But children with ADHD are at higher risk of having other mental health conditions, including:

  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Personality disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

Some mental health disorders might be related to the effects of ADHD. For example, problems at school could trigger depression. In these cases, treating ADHD might be enough to resolve the issue. But if your child has a mental health disorder along with ADHD, they'll need treatment for both conditions.

For about 7 out of 10 children, ADHD symptoms last into their teens and early adulthood. By age 25, symptoms lessen for 16% of them, while 9% of children no longer have symptoms at all. But for about 35% to 65% of children, ADHD is a lifelong condition. 

Is ADHD in children curable?

There's no cure for ADHD, but with the right treatment, symptoms can be more manageable. While not all medications work for every child, certain stimulant meds have been shown to reduce ADHD symptoms in kids by about 70% to 80%.

What to expect with ADHD in children

With the right treatment, the long-term outlook for most kids with ADHD is positive. Some learn to deal with their symptoms so well that they no longer qualify for an ADHD diagnosis by the time they're adults. 

For others, ADHD lasts a lifetime. But with treatment and symptom management, many lead healthy, fulfilling lives. 

ADHD can also have positive aspects, such as:

  • High energy
  • Creativity
  • The ability to focus intently (hyperfocus) on things you're really interested in

Several other conditions have symptoms that are similar to those of ADHD in children. And many of them are more likely to affect kids who also have AHDD. They include 

  • Learning disabilities such as dyslexia (problems with reading) or dysgraphia (problems with writing)
  • Mood disorders such as depression or bipolar disorder
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Language disorders, in which children have trouble expressing themselves or understanding others
  • Behavior disorders such as conduct disorder or oppositional defiance disorder (ODD), in which a child is often angry, defiant, or aggressive

Kids with ADHD have issues with focus and attention that may last their whole lives. But treatment, a healthy lifestyle, and support from parents can help them manage their symptoms. Work with your child's health care providers and teachers to find the best solution for them.

Show Sources


Mayo Clinic: "Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children."

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: "Treatment Options for ADHD in Children and Teens: A review of Research for Parents and Caregivers."

FDA: "How Do You Know if Your Child Has ADHD?" "FDA permits marketing of first brain wave test to help assess children and teens for ADHD."

National Institute of Mental Health: "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." 

National Resource Center on ADHD: "Parenting a Child with ADHD (WWK2)."

CDC: "What Is ADHD?" "Treatment of ADHD," "Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disabilities Among U.S. Children Aged 3–17 Years," "Data and Statistics About ADHD," “Mental Health Surveillance Among Children — United States, 2013–2019,” "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)."

Johns Hopkins Medicine: "Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children."

Nationwide Children's: "ADHD Changes in Children as They Grow and Develop."

Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD): "ADHD Quick Facts: Behavior Management in ADHD Treatment, "General Prevalence of ADHD," "ADHD and Long-Term Outcomes," “ADHD in the African American Community: During Black History Month and Beyond, CHADD Aims to Increase Understanding, Dialogue, and Access to Resources.”

American Psychiatric Association: "Racial Disparities in ADHD," "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-5-TR)," "What Is ADHD?"

Cleveland Clinic: "Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)."

The Lancet Psychiatry: "Environmental risk factors, protective factors, and peripheral biomarkers for ADHD: an umbrella review."

American Academy of Pediatrics: "Study: 1 in 6 children has developmental disability," "Causes of ADHD: What We Know Today," "Common Coexisting Conditions in Children with ADHD." 

The ADHD Report: "Gender Differences in ADHD Comorbidity During Adolescence: An Understudied Area in Need of Attention."

Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology: “Prevalence of ADHD among Black Youth Compared to White, Latino and Asian Youth: A Meta-Analysis.”

Journal of Attention Disorders: “Social Determinants of Health and ADHD Symptoms in Preschool-Age Children.”

Journal of the American Medical Association: “Racial Disparities in Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a US National Birth Cohort.”

NHS UK: "Living with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)."

UpToDate: "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: Overview of treatment and prognosis."

Journal of Medical Economics: “Economic burden of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents in the United States: a societal perspective.”

FIU News: “Raising a child with ADHD costs five times more than raising a child without ADHD, study finds.”

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology: “Family Burden of Raising a Child with ADHD.”

Child Mind Institute: "What We Know About ADHD and Food."

ADHD Aware: "ADHD and mental health."

View privacy policy, copyright and trust info