There are several causes of tooth discoloration, including:
- Tobacco use. Smoking or chewing tobacco can stain teeth.
- Poor dental hygiene. Inadequate brushing, flossing, and rinsing with an antiseptic mouthwash to remove plaque and stain-producing substances like coffee and tobacco can cause tooth discoloration.
- Disease. Several diseases that affect enamel (the hard surface of the teeth) and dentin (the underlying material under enamel) can lead to tooth discoloration. Treatments for certain conditions can also affect tooth color. For example, head and neck radiation and chemotherapy can cause teeth discoloration. In addition, certain infections in pregnant mothers can cause tooth discoloration in the infant by affecting enamel development.
- Medications. The antibiotics tetracycline and doxycycline are known to discolor teeth when given to children whose teeth are still developing (before age 8). Mouth rinses and washes containing chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride can also stain teeth. Antihistamines (like Benadryl), antipsychotic drugs, and drugs for high blood pressure also cause teeth discoloration.
- Dental materials. Some of the materials used in dentistry, such as amalgam restorations, especially silver sulfide-containing materials, can cast a gray-black color to teeth.
- Advancing age. As you age, the outer layer of enamel on your teeth gets worn away, revealing the natural yellow color of dentin.
- Genetics. Some people have naturally brighter or thicker enamel than others.
- Environment. Excessive fluoride either from environmental sources (naturally high fluoride levels in water) or from excessive use (fluoride applications, rinses, toothpaste, and fluoride supplements taken by mouth) can cause teeth discoloration.
- Trauma. For example, damage from a fall can disturb enamel formation in young children whose teeth are still developing. Trauma can also cause discoloration to adult teeth.
How Can I Prevent Teeth Discoloration?
By making a few simple lifestyle changes, you may be able to prevent teeth discoloration. For example, if you are a coffee drinker and/or smoker, consider cutting back or quitting all together. Also, improve your dental hygiene by brushing, flossing, and using a mouthwash daily, and getting your teeth cleaned by a dental hygienist every 6 months.
If your teeth appear to be an abnormal color without ready explanation and, if other symptoms are also present, make an appointment to see your dentist.
What Treatment Options Are Available to Whiten Teeth?
Treatment options to whiten teeth can vary depending on the cause of the discoloration and may include:
Using proper tooth brushing and flossing techniques
- Avoidance of the foods and beverages that cause stains
- Using over-the-counter whitening agents
- In-home whitening agents purchased from your dentist
- In-office whitening procedures